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SEVEN TATTAVAS

The Belief in these tattavas, the knowledge of these tattavas and the conduct in accordance with. these tattavas, all these three are called Vyavhara-Samyag Darshan, Vyavhara-Samyag Gyan and Vyavhara-Samyag Charitra respectively.

The Vyavhara Ratna- Traya leads to Nischaya Ratna- Traya. The Nischaya Ratna- Traya means the belief in soul, the knowledge of soul and absorption in the soul.

SEVEN TATTAVAS are Jiva (tho) - living, Ajiva (vtho)- non-living, Ashrava (~vklzo)- influx, Bandh (cU/k)­-bondage, (laoj_) - stoppage, Nirjara (futZjk)- gradual dissociation, and Moksha (eks{k)- liberation.

1.                 Jiva i.e. living substance

2.                 Ajiva i.e. non-living substance

3.                 Ashrava i.e. the influx of karmic matter into the

soul

4.                 Bandh i.e. bondage of soul by karmic matter

5.                 Samvara i.e. the stopping of asrava influx

6.                 Nirjara i.e. the gradual removal of karmic matter

7.                 Moksha i.e. the attainment of perfect freedom from the Karmas.

       1.         JIVA TATIAV

The Jiva means Atma i.e. soul or spirit. Jivas are classified under two principal heads- Samsari (involved in worldly existence) and Mukta (liberated). Samsari jivas are further divided into Sthavar (immobile) and Trasa (mobile-capable of movement). Earth, water, fire, air and vegetables are Sthavar Jivas and possess only

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sense, viz. the sense of touch. These Jivas which possess more than one sense are called Trasa jivas. These might possess two, three, four or five senses. Worms, Oysters, conches etc. are Trasa Jivas possessing two senses of touch and taste. Ants, bugs , lice etc. are Trasa Jivas having three senses of touch, taste and smell. Mosquitoes, flies, bees etc. are Trasa Jivas having four senses of touch, taste, smell, and sight. Human beings (Man-Woman), birds, beasts, Deva (Celestial beings are divided into four orders, groups or classes; 1. Bhavan Vasi-residential, 2. Vyantara-perpatetic, 3. Jyotisha-stellar, 4. Vaimanic-heavenly), and inmates of hell (hellish) are Trasa Jivas possessing all the five senses with mana i.e. having mind, viz. touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing and mind.

From one-sensed to four sensed Jivas are Sammurchana Triyanch and without mind. Sammurchana means spontaneous generation. Such Jivas grow out of surrounding matter combining and forming the physical body for the incarnating soul.

Panchendriya Triyanch are classified into two categories viz. Samana - having mind, and Amana ­without mind.

Samsari jivas are classified into four Gati i.e. condition of existence: viz. Hellish, Sub human, Human and Deva (celestial). In the four Gatis there are 84 lacs types of Yoni-nucleus. Jivas are everywhere. The whole world is literally filled with them. Their characteristic mark is consciousness which can never be destroyed.

According to real point of view every soul is pure, and powerful, every soul has the capacity to acquire the Ratnatraya, but Karmas have been disturbing the

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Samsari Jivas since eternity. So, according to the practical point of view; soul is impure and has lost its own power. Both, Jiva and Karma are eternal by nature.

I;fM’khy lgkoks thoaxk.kav.kkbZ lacU/kks A

d.k;ks oys eayeok rk.k fRFkar Lo;a fl}a AA

 

The relation of Jiva and Karma is eternal and it is by nature like gold. When gold is taken out from mines, it is raw metal, gold and other material, both are mixed by nature since eternity, nobody has mixed them. Likewise, soul and karma are together by nature and from eternity, but we can separate them, from each other like gold.

       2.         AJIVA  TATTAV

Non-living or non-soul substances are of five kinds of

Darvya, viz,

       i)          Pudgala Dravya - matter

       ii)         Dharma Dravya - medium of motion

       iii)        Adharma Dravya - medium of rest

       iv)        Akasa Dravya - space and

       v)         Kala Dravya - time

        i)          Pudgala Dravya

Pudgala or matter is not only non-living· but also 'Murtika' i.e. having a form. The characteristic mark of Pudgala is known Murtiatva i.e. Sparsh (Li’kZ) -touch (eight touches), Rasa (jl)- taste (five tastes); Varna (o.kZ) - colour (five colours), Gandh (x/ka) - smell (two smells). Karmas, bodies, thoughts, clothes, vessels, metal etc. all are Pudgala i.e. matter. Matter has two chief forms, viz. Atom and Molecule. The nature of Pudgala is getting

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Togather and separation i.e. Purna- Galan = Pudgal.       

    “ ln+nks ca/kks lqgeks Fkqyks laBk.k HksnreNk;k A

 

mTtksnknolkfg;k iqXxynOoLl iTtk;k AA   nzO; laxzg

 

Saddho (ln~nks) - sound, Bandho (ca/kks) - union, Suhamo (lqgeks)-fineness, Thulo (/kwyks) - gossness, Samdhana bheda tama chhaya (laBk.k HksnreNk;k) - shape division darkness and image. Ujjodadav sahiya (mTtksnknolkfg;k) - with luster and heat, Puggala-davvassa (iqXxynOoLl) Pudgala-substances, Pajjaya (iTtk;k) - modification. Rupinah Pudgalah (#fi.k% iqXxy) (Tatvartha Sutra) - matter is Rupi i.e. it has touch, taste, smell and colour.

ii) Dharma Dravya  

'Dharma-Dravya' is the principle of motion. Dharam Dravya is only one and undivided. Its spread or expansion is as much as the world-Lokakash (yksdkdk’k).

xb ifj.k;k.k /kEeks iqXxythok.k xe.klg;kjh A

rks;a tg ePnk.ka vPNark .sko lks .ksb AA  nzO; laxzg

As water assists the movement of moving fish, so Dharma assists the movement of moving Pudgala and Jiva, but it does not move Jiva and Pudgala which are not moving. That is with the help of Dharma, Jiva and Pudgala move. Dharma does not make them move, but only assist them in their movement when they begin to move, as fish moves in the water. The characteristic mark of Dharam Dravya is the help of movement to Jiva and Pudgala.

Though Dharma Dravya does not force them, it is only a passive helper to them, but Dharma Dravya is a must to their movement, without Dharma Dravya, the motion of Jiva and Pudgala would be impossible.

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iii)       Adharma Dravya

Adharma Dravya - the medium of rest. The characteristic mark of Adharma-Dravya is supporting the rest of soul and matter which are staying.

Bk.ktqnk.k v/kEeks iqXxythok.k Bk.klg;kjh A

Nk;k tg ifg;k.ka xPNark .kso lks /kjbZ AA

 

 

As shadow assists the staying of travelers, so Adharma assists the staying of Pudgala and Jivas which are stationary, but Adharma does not hold back moving Pudgalas and Jivas. Adharma Dravya is also only one (v[kaM). Its expansion is in the Lokakash (whole world) as is of the Dharma-Dravya.

iv)      Akash Dravya

Akash Dravya-space The function of space (Akash) is to provide accommodation to all the other substances.

        Voxklnk.ktksXxa thoknh.ka fo;k.k vk;kla A

    Ts.ka yksxkxkla vYyksxkxk lfefn nqfoga AA

Akash gives accommodation to six Dravyas viz. Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Akash & Kala. Akash Dravya is infinite; it is also Amurtik, i.e. devoid of the qualities of Pudgala. It is one; but the space where six Dravya are found is called Lokakash. Beyond the Lokakash where there are no Dravya except Akash is called Alokakash. Akash is part-lessly one (v[kaM). But due to the presence of six Dravya, Akash is divided into two parts viz., Lokakash and Alokakash. Akash-Dravya gives accommodation to six Dravyas like a house. A house gives place to family or family stays in the house; everything is staying in Lokakash alone. Lokakash is on

 

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Tanuvata-valaya, Tanuvata-valaya is on Ghanavata-valaya. Ghanavata-valaya is on Ghanodadhi and Ghanodadha is on Akash or space. Tamtvata, Ghanavata and Ghanodadhi are names of layers of air and valaya indicates their shape and position. Really speaking, each and everything is independent, still according to Vyavahar Naya, they are supporters of each other. Sky and Space both are different. We can see the sky because it is modification of the Pudgala and space is invisible. (vewfrZd)

v)    Kala Dravya

Kala i.e. Time

       orZukifj.kke fdz;k% ijRok ijRos p dkyL; AA22AA rRokFkZlw=

                        

"Permanance is with change"

Kala Dravya is a helper of all the Dravyas in the­process of changing. Every Dravya has the capacity of changing but without Kala Dravya there is no function in all Dravyas. Kala-Dravya is a must. Two types of Kala-Dravya viz., Vyavahara-Kala and Nishchaya Kala Vartana  is the characteristic of Nischaya Kala. And Vyavahara-Kala: hour, minute, second, month, fortnight & year are known as Vyavahara Kala. We came to know Vyavahara-Kala in terms of these.

3.    ASHRAVA TATTAVA

Ashrava i.e. influx: The influx of Karmas into soul is called Ashrava. There are 57 Ashravas under Mithyatva, Avirati, Pramada, Yoga and Kasaya. These four- classes have their subdivisions into five, twelve, fifteen and twenty-five respectively. Fifteen Pramad are counted in the twenty-five Kasayas. These are Bhavasrava. Due to

 

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57 Bhavashravas, eight Karmas fuse into soul, these are called Dravya-Ashrava. Bhavashrava allow eight Dravya-Karmas viz. Jnana Varniya etc. Eight Karmas stay with soul for a fixed duration. Coming and going of Karma is a continuous process. Each other cause to bind new Karmas. Bhavasravas are caused by Dravya ashravas and vice versa. Due to Dravya and Bhava Karmas, forgetting its own nature, the soul becomes a cause of both, so the cycle of Karmas is without beginning. The soul is suffering from various types of troubles caused by Karmas. The Papa-Ashravas always give troubles to Jivas. So knowing both the Ashravas in their various aspects, we should treat them as our enemy.

4.      BANDH-TATTAV

Bandh i.e. Bondage: Karmas and soul both stay (live) in the same place like milk and water. It is bondage. Even though both live in the same space, but they are separate by their nature, characteristics etc.

 

Each moment every Samsari Jiva binds innumerable Karmas. Bandh is of four kind’s viz., Prakriti, Sthiti, Anubhaga and Pradesh. Prakriti and Pradesh are produced by yoga, Sthiti and Anubhag are caused by Kasaya.

Ik;fMfVBfn v.kqHkkxIinalHksnk nqpnqfo/kks ca/kks A

Tksxk I;fMinslk fBfnv.kqHkkxk dlk;nks gksafr  AA 33AA nzO; lxzg

 

Really Sthiti and Anubhaga are harmful for the soul.

Prakriti and Pradesh work with Sthiti and Anubhaga, and Prakriti and Pradesh are not harmful. Without, Kasaya (passions) the activities of Mana-Vachan and Kaya are not to cause the bondage of Karmas in the true

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sense of the. term. Kasaya (Passion) is the main cause of Bandh. So we should leave the passions.

5.    SAMVARA TATTAVA

Samvara i.e. Stoppage: It means that the path of Ashrava is blocked or obstructed. It is called Samvara. It is opposite of Ashravas. As there are 57 Ashravas and so there are 57 Samvara i.e. Five Vrata (vows), five Samiti (attitude of carefulness), Guptis (restraints), Dharmas (observances), Anuprikshas (contemplations), Parishava Jayas (victory over troubles) and various kinds of charitra (conduct) are to be known as varieties of Bhav-Samvara. Because of Bhav-Samvara there is no entrance of Karmas like Jananavarna etc. it is called Dravya-Samvarn. So we should follow all these Bhav-Samvara. The soul possesses all these qualities but they are covered by karmas. It is possible for those who follow the Ratna-Traya i.e. Samyag-Darshan (Right belief), Samyag-Gyan (Right knowledge) and Samyag-Charitra (Right conduct). Therefore, everybody should try to acquire Ratna-Traya.

6.    NIRJARA TATTAV

Gradual dissociation or destruction· of Karmas is Nirjara. There are two kinds of Nirjara viz., Savipak Nirjara and Avipak Nirjara.

i)                   Savipak Nirjara i.e. after completing duration (time or Sthiti) of Karmas; the Karmas fall off from soul without any effort on the part of the soul. This is called Savipak-Nirjara.

       ii)         Avipak Nirjara i.e. before completing their duration, Karmas are destroyed by penance,

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meditation, fast, Aradhna of Ratna Traya. This is called Avipak-Nirjara. Avipak Nirjara is the cause of Moksha. For example, on the tree raw mangoes are there, we bring and put them in a hot place applying chemicals, due to chemicals mangoes get ripe earlier in comparison to those on the tree. If we leave them on the tree then it takes 13 to 15 days to get ripe, by using chemicals we make them ripe very fast i.e. within 3 to 5 days. Like this Karmas are shed earlier than their Sthiti by observing right penance i.e. with Ratna-Traya (Samyag-Darshan, Samyag Gyan and Samyag-Charitra).

In Savipak Nirjara, destruction of Karmas is automatic i.e. after finishing their Sthiti they are shed off the soul. Savipak Nirjara happens with everybody may be Samyak Drishti or may be Mithya-Drishti, so it is not potent to lead to Moksha. So we take five vows, may take Anuvratas or Mahavratas. We should take vows according to our capacity. If we are able to keep them in practice, we must follow the vratas and destroy the Karmas for the bliss of Moksha .

7.    MOKSHA TATTAV

Moksha-Liberation i.e. freedom from all Karmas.

The bliss of Moksha is completely different from worldly happiness. Samsari Jivas do not get a taste of it at all. But those who tasted it, must have achieved Moksha. What is Moksha Sukha for the soul? Nobody can explain it, as one can know it by experience. For example, somebody explains that sugar is very tasty, fine, very sweet, good etc., but someone asks how it is then he tells him to eat and experience it. Likewise 'Bhagwan' (Lord) has explained Moksha-Sukha in his

 

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'Divya-Dhvani' on the basis of his own experience and thus guides us to have experience ourselves.

In the Samsar, Samsari Jivas want to achieve Moksha, but nobody is prepared to adopt a course of religious activities required for Moksha. But without Moksha-Purusharth, how one can get Moksha? So our effort should be directed towards Moksha. Therefore, make efforts for Samvara and Nirjara and get rid of Ashrava and Bandh. Asharav and Bandh are for Samsar and Samvara and Nirjara are for Moksha.

 

The order of the seven Tattavas with Jiva at the first place is justified because Jiva is main among them, it is everywhere, Jiva does everything, and after destroying the Karmas, it is Jive alone that achieves Moksha. So Jiva occupies the first place among the seven Tattavas.   

                                                                                                                                                               

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