sense, viz. the sense of touch.
These Jivas which possess more than one sense are called Trasa jivas.
These might possess two, three, four or five senses. Worms, Oysters,
conches etc. are Trasa Jivas possessing two senses of touch and taste.
Ants, bugs , lice etc. are Trasa Jivas having three senses of touch, taste
and smell. Mosquitoes, flies, bees etc. are Trasa Jivas having four senses
of touch, taste, smell, and sight. Human beings (Man-Woman), birds,
beasts, Deva (Celestial beings are divided into four orders, groups or
Bhavan Vasi-residential, 2.
Vyantara-perpatetic, 3. Jyotisha-stellar, 4. Vaimanic-heavenly), and
inmates of hell (hellish) are Trasa Jivas possessing all the five senses
with mana i.e. having mind, viz. touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing and
From one-sensed to four sensed
Jivas are Sammurchana Triyanch and without mind. Sammurchana means
spontaneous generation. Such Jivas grow out of surrounding matter
combining and forming the physical body for the incarnating soul.
Panchendriya Triyanch are
classified into two categories viz. Samana - having mind, and Amana
Samsari jivas are classified
into four Gati i.e. condition of existence: viz. Hellish, Sub human, Human
and Deva (celestial). In the four Gatis there are 84 lacs types of
Yoni-nucleus. Jivas are everywhere. The whole world is literally filled
with them. Their characteristic mark is consciousness which can never be
According to real point of view
every soul is pure, and powerful, every soul has the capacity to acquire
the Ratnatraya, but Karmas have been disturbing the
Samsari Jivas since eternity. So, according to
the practical point of view; soul is impure and has lost its own power.
Both, Jiva and Karma are eternal by nature.
thoaxk.kav.kkbZ lacU/kks A
d.k;ks oys eayeok
rk.k fRFkar Lo;a fl}a AA
The relation of Jiva and Karma is eternal and
it is by nature like gold. When gold is taken out from mines, it is raw
metal, gold and other material, both are mixed by nature since eternity,
nobody has mixed them. Likewise, soul and karma are together by nature
and from eternity, but we can separate them, from each other like gold.
2. AJIVA TATTAV
Non-living or non-soul substances are of five
i) Pudgala Dravya - matter
ii) Dharma Dravya - medium of
iii) Adharma Dravya - medium of
iv) Akasa Dravya - space and
v) Kala Dravya - time
Pudgala or matter is not only non-living· but
also 'Murtika' i.e. having a form. The characteristic mark of Pudgala is
known Murtiatva i.e. Sparsh (Li’kZ)
-touch (eight touches), Rasa (jl)-
taste (five tastes); Varna
- colour (five colours), Gandh
- smell (two smells). Karmas,
bodies, thoughts, clothes, vessels, metal etc. all are Pudgala i.e.
matter. Matter has two chief forms, viz. Atom and Molecule. The nature
of Pudgala is getting
Togather and separation i.e.
ca/kks lqgeks Fkqyks laBk.k HksnreNk;k A
iqXxynOoLl iTtk;k AA”
- sound, Bandho (ca/kks)
- union, Suhamo (lqgeks)-fineness, Thulo (/kwyks)
- gossness, Samdhana bheda tama chhaya (laBk.k
- shape division darkness and image. Ujjodadav sahiya
- with luster and
heat, Puggala-davvassa (iqXxynOoLl)
Pudgala-substances, Pajjaya (iTtk;k)
- modification. Rupinah Pudgalah (#fi.k%
iqXxy) (Tatvartha Sutra) - matter is Rupi i.e. it has touch, taste,
smell and colour.
'Dharma-Dravya' is the
principle of motion. Dharam Dravya is only one and undivided. Its
spread or expansion is as much as the world-Lokakash
xb ifj.k;k.k /kEeks iqXxythok.k xe.klg;kjh A
rks;a tg ePnk.ka vPNark .sko lks .ksb AA
As water assists the
movement of moving fish, so Dharma assists the movement of moving
Pudgala and Jiva, but it does not move Jiva and Pudgala which are not
moving. That is with the help of Dharma, Jiva and Pudgala move. Dharma
does not make them move, but only assist them in their movement when
they begin to move, as fish moves in the water. The characteristic
mark of Dharam Dravya is the help of movement to Jiva and Pudgala.
Though Dharma Dravya does
not force them, it is only a passive helper to them, but Dharma Dravya
is a must to their movement, without Dharma Dravya, the motion of Jiva
and Pudgala would be impossible.
iii) Adharma Dravya
Adharma Dravya - the medium of rest. The characteristic mark of
Adharma-Dravya is supporting the rest of soul and matter which are
iqXxythok.k Bk.klg;kjh A
Nk;k tg ifg;k.ka
xPNark .kso lks /kjbZ AA
As shadow assists the staying of travelers, so Adharma assists the
staying of Pudgala and Jivas which are stationary, but Adharma does
not hold back moving Pudgalas and Jivas. Adharma Dravya is also only
one (v[kaM). Its expansion is in the Lokakash (whole world) as is of the
iv) Akash Dravya
Akash Dravya-space The function of space (Akash) is to provide
accommodation to all the other substances.
thoknh.ka fo;k.k vk;kla A
yksxkxkla vYyksxkxk lfefn nqfoga AA
Akash gives accommodation to six Dravyas viz. Jiva, Pudgala,
Dharma, Adharma, Akash
Kala. Akash Dravya is infinite; it is also Amurtik, i.e. devoid of
the qualities of Pudgala. It is one; but the space where six Dravya
are found is called Lokakash. Beyond the Lokakash where there are no
Dravya except Akash is called Alokakash. Akash is part-lessly one (v[kaM). But due to the presence of six Dravya, Akash is divided into
two parts viz., Lokakash and Alokakash. Akash-Dravya gives
accommodation to six Dravyas like a house. A house gives place to
family or family stays in the house; everything is staying in Lokakash
alone. Lokakash is on
Tanuvata-valaya is on Ghanavata-valaya. Ghanavata-valaya is on
Ghanodadhi and Ghanodadha is on Akash or space. Tamtvata, Ghanavata
and Ghanodadhi are names of layers of air and valaya indicates their
shape and position. Really speaking, each and everything is
independent, still according to Vyavahar Naya, they are supporters of
each other. Sky and Space both are different. We can see the sky
because it is modification of the Pudgala and space is invisible. (vewfrZd)
Kala i.e. Time
orZukifj.kke fdz;k% ijRok ijRos p dkyL; AA22AA rRokFkZlw=
"Permanance is with change"
Kala Dravya is a helper of all the Dravyas in theprocess of
changing. Every Dravya has the capacity of changing but without Kala
Dravya there is no function in all Dravyas. Kala-Dravya is a must. Two
types of Kala-Dravya viz., Vyavahara-Kala and Nishchaya Kala Vartana
is the characteristic of Nischaya Kala. And Vyavahara-Kala: hour,
minute, second, month, fortnight
year are known as
Vyavahara Kala. We came to know Vyavahara-Kala in terms of these.
Ashrava i.e. influx: The influx of Karmas into soul is called
Ashrava. There are 57 Ashravas under Mithyatva, Avirati, Pramada, Yoga
and Kasaya. These four- classes have their subdivisions into five,
twelve, fifteen and twenty-five respectively. Fifteen Pramad are
counted in the twenty-five Kasayas. These are Bhavasrava. Due to
57 Bhavashravas, eight Karmas fuse into
soul, these are called Dravya-Ashrava. Bhavashrava allow eight
Dravya-Karmas viz. Jnana Varniya etc. Eight Karmas stay with soul
for a fixed duration. Coming and going of Karma is a continuous
process. Each other cause to bind new Karmas. Bhavasravas are caused
by Dravya ashravas and vice versa. Due to Dravya and Bhava Karmas,
forgetting its own nature, the soul becomes a cause of both, so the
cycle of Karmas is without beginning. The soul is suffering from
various types of troubles caused by Karmas. The Papa-Ashravas always
give troubles to Jivas. So knowing both the Ashravas in their
various aspects, we should treat them as our enemy.
Bandh i.e. Bondage: Karmas and soul both
stay (live) in the same place like milk and water. It is bondage.
Even though both live in the same space, but they are separate by
their nature, characteristics etc.
Each moment every Samsari Jiva binds
innumerable Karmas. Bandh is of four kind’s viz., Prakriti, Sthiti,
Anubhaga and Pradesh. Prakriti and Pradesh are produced by yoga,
Sthiti and Anubhag are caused by Kasaya.
v.kqHkkxIinalHksnk nqpnqfo/kks ca/kks A
I;fMinslk fBfnv.kqHkkxk dlk;nks gksafr AA 33AA nzO; lxzg
Really Sthiti and Anubhaga are harmful for
Prakriti and Pradesh work with Sthiti and
Anubhaga, and Prakriti and Pradesh are not harmful. Without, Kasaya
(passions) the activities of Mana-Vachan and Kaya are not to cause
the bondage of Karmas in the true
sense of the. term.
Kasaya (Passion) is the main cause of Bandh. So we should leave
Samvara i.e. Stoppage:
It means that the path of Ashrava is blocked or obstructed. It is
called Samvara. It is opposite of Ashravas. As there are 57
Ashravas and so there are 57 Samvara i.e. Five Vrata (vows), five
Samiti (attitude of carefulness), Guptis (restraints), Dharmas
(observances), Anuprikshas (contemplations), Parishava Jayas
(victory over troubles) and various kinds of charitra (conduct)
are to be known as varieties of Bhav-Samvara. Because of
Bhav-Samvara there is no entrance of Karmas like Jananavarna etc.
it is called Dravya-Samvarn. So we should follow all these
Bhav-Samvara. The soul possesses all these qualities but they are
covered by karmas.
is possible for those who follow the Ratna-Traya i.e.
Samyag-Darshan (Right belief), Samyag-Gyan (Right knowledge) and
Samyag-Charitra (Right conduct). Therefore, everybody should try
to acquire Ratna-Traya.
6. NIRJARA TATTAV
Gradual dissociation or
destruction· of Karmas is Nirjara. There are two kinds of Nirjara
viz., Savipak Nirjara and Avipak Nirjara.
Savipak Nirjara i.e. after completing duration (time or
Sthiti) of Karmas; the Karmas fall off from soul without any
effort on the part of the soul. This is called Savipak-Nirjara.
Avipak Nirjara i.e. before completing their duration, Karmas are
destroyed by penance,
meditation, fast, Aradhna of
Ratna Traya. This is called Avipak-Nirjara. Avipak Nirjara is the cause of
Moksha. For example, on the tree raw mangoes are there, we bring and put
them in a hot place applying chemicals, due to chemicals mangoes get ripe
earlier in comparison to those on the tree. If we leave them on the tree
then it takes 13 to 15 days to get ripe, by using chemicals we make them
ripe very fast i.e. within 3 to 5 days. Like this Karmas are shed earlier
than their Sthiti by observing right penance i.e. with Ratna-Traya (Samyag-Darshan,
Samyag Gyan and Samyag-Charitra).
In Savipak Nirjara, destruction
of Karmas is automatic i.e. after finishing their Sthiti they are shed off
the soul. Savipak Nirjara happens with everybody may be Samyak Drishti or
may be Mithya-Drishti, so it is not potent to lead to Moksha. So we take
five vows, may take Anuvratas or Mahavratas. We should take vows according
to our capacity. If we are able to keep them in practice, we must follow
the vratas and destroy the Karmas for the bliss of Moksha .
Moksha-Liberation i.e. freedom
from all Karmas.
The bliss of Moksha is
completely different from worldly happiness. Samsari Jivas do not get a
taste of it at all. But those who tasted it, must have achieved Moksha.
What is Moksha Sukha for the soul? Nobody can explain it, as one can know
it by experience. For example, somebody explains that sugar is very tasty,
fine, very sweet, good etc., but someone asks how it is then he tells him
to eat and experience it. Likewise 'Bhagwan' (Lord) has explained
Moksha-Sukha in his
'Divya-Dhvani' on the basis of his own experience and thus guides
us to have experience ourselves.
In the Samsar, Samsari Jivas want to achieve
Moksha, but nobody is prepared to adopt a course of religious activities
required for Moksha. But without Moksha-Purusharth, how one can get Moksha?
So our effort should be directed towards Moksha. Therefore, make efforts
for Samvara and Nirjara and get rid of Ashrava and Bandh. Asharav and
Bandh are for Samsar and Samvara and Nirjara are for Moksha.
The order of the seven Tattavas with Jiva at the first
place is justified because Jiva is main among
them, it is everywhere, Jiva does everything, and after destroying the
Karmas, it is Jive alone that achieves Moksha. So Jiva occupies the first
place among the seven Tattavas.
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