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SAMYAGDARSHAN ITS IMPORTANCE IN JAIN PHILOSOPHY

Jain philosophy has attached unique importance to Samyagdarshan. It is said to be the foundation of Moksha Mahal (The palace of salvation). If devoid of Samyagdarshan, all acts and conduct of a Jiva (Soul) are insignificant and do not carry any meaning. In Chhah Dhala, Daulat Ramji has rightly described,

 

Ekks{kegy dh izFke lh<h] ;k fcu Kku pfj= A

lE;drk u ygS] lks níkZu] /kkjks HkO; ifo=k AA

It has also been affirmed that without Samyagdarshan all knowledge and all conduct cannot be right, and Jiva can not experience any happiness in the absence of  Samyagdarshan.

 eqfuozr /kkj vaur ckj] xzhod mitk;ks A

 iS fut vkre Kku fcuk] lq[k ysík u ik;ks AA

In Tattvartha Sutra, too, Uma Swami has stated lE;XníkZu&Kku&pfj= eks{kekxZ% which means that the unity of . Samyagdarshan, Samyaggyan and Samyagcharitra constitute the path of salvation. To attach due importance to it, Uma Swami has also placed Samyagdarshan first in the Sutra. If your beliefs and

faiths are true (i.e.Samyagdarshan) then all your            knowledge and conduct become righteous (Samyag),

otherwise they are false (Mithya). There is no dearth of Sutras or Shlokas in Jain Philosophy, which signifies the importance of Samyagdarshan and tell us that without Samyagdarshan a Jiva cannot destroy his karmik shackles. Therefore, one must realise the importance of Samyagdarshan in Jain religion.              

 

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In view of its unparalleled importance in Jain Darshan, it is imperative to understand Samyagdarshan and its attributes.

 

 

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SAMYAGDARSHAN AND ITS ATTRIBUTES

Samyagdarshan has been defined as right belief in 'Arhant Deva', "Jain Scriptures" and the 'Guru'; and this belief should be free of three follies (belief in wrong Deva, Guru and Scripture) and eight prides (Madas), concerning learning, honour, family, caste, power, opulence, penance and body.

Samyagdarshan has also eight essential attributes or characteristics, which must be attained and rigorously followed by a Samyagdrasthi person. These eight essential attributes are:

(a) Nishankitatva,                      (b) Nihkankshitatva,

(c)Nirvichiktsa tatva,             (d)     Amudhdrastitava,

(e)   Upaguhanatva,                (f)      Sthitikaranatva,

(g) Vatsalyatva and                (h) Prabhavanatva.

A person who is deficient in anyone of the above attributes can not be said to be a Samayagdrasthi. All these attributes of Samyagdarshan can be compared with the eight organs of the human body. The body is said to be incomplete, if anyone of its eight organs are missing. Similarly, Samayagdrasthi devoid of anyone of the eight attributes becomes an ineffective vehicle in attaining our objectives of right belief in Deva (Divinity), scripture and the Guru (Preceptor).

The omission of even one integral constituent of Samyagdarshan will inevitably clip the wings of a man who longs to soar high in the realm of spiritualism. All know that the pain arising from venom cannot be eliminated by using an incomplete Mantra. Similarly, Samyagdarshan with mutilated organ is incapable of ending the disquietude permeating empirical existence.

In the absence of Samayagdarshan, all intellectual

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knowledge and ethical conduct would deprive the aspirant of spiritual attainments of which he is potentially capable.

A Samyagdarshi must recognise his self as the cause of his misery and the means for its elimination. He must also recognise passions as his main foes; though he may not know their names, yet he must have the feeling that real happiness requires their extirpation.

The eight organs or qualities of Samyagdarshan may be defined as follows:

NISHANKITATVA

Nishankit Anga implies firm belief in all that has been preached by our Arhant Devas and has come down to us through Jain scriptures, written by Jain Acharyas. Persons who follow this 'Anga' do not doubt what has been said or is in the knowledge of the omniscient. His inquisitiveness if pushed in a perverted direction is bound to be suicidal; if pushed in the right direction may lead to final certitude. Normally our limited knowledge can not go beyond what has been seen and practised by our Tirthankars. A person's unshakable faith in the righteous path makes him free of all the seven kinds of fears ordinarily present in the perverted soul. He remains unaffected by the sorrows and agonies of life and the physical and/or mental pleasures have no meaning for him. He has no fear of death, discomfiture, disease, incidental or accidental occurrence in his surroundings. He has no worry about his safety or getting or losing any affluence. Thus, he becomes self confident.

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NIHKANKSHITATVA

Nihkankshitatva implies absence of desire for any pleasure, earthly or heavenly. A person, observing this Anga never hankers after worldly opulence and ephemeral pleasures. He is convinced that all of these earthly or heavenly pleasures and enjoyments are impermanent, fraught with miseries, procreative of sin and evil, and are caused by the filth of Karmas. Also he ' does not cling to one sided views.

NIRVICHIKITSATATVA

Nirvichikitsatatva signifies that there should be no feeling of disgust concerning various bodily conditions caused by disease, hunger, thirst, cold, hurt or at the sight of any foul excretions of the body. He firmly believes that the body is impure by nature and is rendered venerable by its association with the triple jewels of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct. He does' not entertain a scornful attitude towards body even if it is diseased and unclean and concerns himself  to the spiritual super-empirical' qualities.  

 

AMUDHDRASTITVA

Amudhdrastitva consist of steering clear of all perversity and in dissociating oneself from people pursuing wrong paths. According to Kartikeyanupreksha, one who even being overwhelmed  by fear, inferiority and greed for profit, does not recognise Himsa as Dharma, is free from stupidity. Also Amudhdrasti Anga insists upon the abandonment of false Guru, false Deva, false conduct and false conceptions.

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   UPAGUHANATVA  

 

      This Anga has two names: Upabranhana and Upaguhana. He, who develops in himself spiritual qualities by dwelling upon pure thoughts is said to practise Upabranhana Anga. He also does riot speak of his own merits nor the demerits of other spiritual persons. He also does not disclose the shortcomings of spiritual persons to save the spiritual path from blasphemy. Though the two, by nomenclature, are seen different, the practising of one implies inevitably the other i.e. the cultivation of spiritual qualities ipsofacto -inspires one to veil the defects of the spiritual persons.

STHITIKARANATVA

Sthitikaran implies the strengthening of the conviction of those who are faltering in their loyalty to Dharma and also saving himself from lapses. There may be some persons, who oppressed by the overwhelming intensity of passions like anger, pride, greed and deceit or by other seductive causes, may be constrained to deviate from the path of righteousness. Re-establishment of such persons in their true path by reminding them of their innate glory and magnificence is Sthitikaran.

VATSALYATVA

Vatsalya implies deep affection for spiritual matters, principles of non injury, and spiritual brotherhood. One, who is devoted to pious persons, follows them with great respect, and speaks to them nobly is said to possess Vatsalya Anga.

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PRABHAVANATVA

Prabhavana signifies the imperativeness of glorifying one's own self with the ten Dharmas or the triple resplendent jewels. !t also implies the dissemination of the religion propounded by the conqueror of passions through exceptional charity, austerity, devotion, profound learning and other means best suited to time and place.

All of these eight limbs of Samyagdarshan are observed by all the Samyagdarshti Jivas. But there are certain persons who got fames in observance of particular organ of Samyagdarshan. So in Jain Shastras names of Anjan Chor, Anantmati, King Udayan, Revati Rani, Jinendra Bhakt Seth, Varishen Kumar, Vishnu Kumar &. Vajra Kumar have been highlighted in observance of Nihshankitatva, Nihkankshitatva, Nirvichikitsatatva, Amudhdrashitava, Upaguhanatva, Sthitikaranatva, Vatsalyatva, and Prabhavanatva Anga

 of Samyagdarshan respectively.

  Dharma begins from Samyagdarshan and Samyagdarshan basically is Dharma. It is very very necessary for everyone, to know the real Dharma, the definition of Dharma and its qualities.

Belief should be in 'Padarthas', not in ordinary things, but the belief in Veetrag Deva, Nirgrantha-Guru and Siddhanta-Shastras, is called as Right belief. Right-belief has eight Angas or organs. These eight Angas are defined and described in stories.

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