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   Fundamental Features of Jainism.

The science of Attaining Godhood

"Jain Dharma"





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Soul's Journey up to Supreme Soul (Disembodied Omniscient Siddha God)

            As discussed above, it is necessary to annihilate passion for

piety- for attainment of one’s own knowledge & blissful nature.                             As discussed above, it is necessary to annihilate passion for piety - for attainment of one's own knowledge & blissful nature.

The cause of growth of passion/attachment-aversion is one's own ignorance (about the self-soul) and false belief of I-ness/oneness feeling in the body and fruits of karmas. The moment this Jiva knows his intrinsic nature then the I-ness/oneness feeling in the body gets quit; the moment I-ness/oneness feeling in the body is quit, the root cause of germination of passions gets eradicated; and the moment the root cause of germination of passions is eradi­cated, after that whatever past impressions of attachment - aver­sion are left persisting, the means of annihilating them gradually needs to be adopted; and in this way as much as quantum of pas­sions/attachment-aversion would go on decreasing, that much quantum of purity (passionless ness) will go on increasing/mani­festing.

14 staees of Spiritual Development

                   (Fourteen Gunasthanas)

For the measurement of (the quantum of) passions fourteen stages of spiritual development (Gunasthanas) are described in the scripture (Jain-canon). As the fever is measured by thermometer, in the same way the delusion (fallacy) form of fever is mea­sured by 'Gunasthanas' (14 stages of spiritual ladder). As the pas­sions go on lessening, (so accordingly) externally (in practical life) dependency goes on reducing and internally the proximity with the self-nature goes on increasing the soul's advance on the path of progress.



-: First Gunasthana : --

So long as this Jiva is found having I-ness/oneness feeling / conviction in material karmas and fruition of karmas in the body and attachment- aversion, till then he is staying in the first Gunasthana. Here in this stage, he possesses attachment (Raag) not only with one body, but attachment of I-ness / oneness towards all possible bodies is found. Likewise, (his) attachment- aversion is not (limited) to one object related to this body but in his (inner) intention the attachment-aversion towards all possible objects/things is found existing. Body's existence means his ex­istence (life), body's end means his end (death). His happiness also is from non-self things and from external objects, and his unhappiness too is from non-self external things. His whole exist­ence is connected with outside things, is diverted towards out­side; therefore he is called" Bahiraatma" (extroverted mundane soul).


The beginning of journey for going ahead from here is then

only possible when this Jiva makes effort in the direction of ascer­taining the nature of substance and distinction between 'Swa' (self) and 'Para' (non-self). He determines that passion (Kashaya) is irksome (full of misery); it is to be ended; one's own (passionless) nature is to be attained. And he finds out the causes of these, that who is the attainer of nature (natural state) and the ender/annihi­lator of passion? Now, for him the same supreme soul is deity (Deva or God) who is free from passion - who has attained (his passionless) nature, the same one is worth adoration, the same is accomplishable/attainable. That only is 'Shastra' (scripture) which teaches us to end passion and attain nature (natural passionless state of soul). And they alone are our 'Guru' (monk / preceptor) who are engaged in this act (of attaining a passionless state). Ex­cepting these he does not worship nor accompany any such so called Deva-Shastra-Guru, from whom the passions are fostered. Along with this he forsakes externally (in practical life) injury to other beings (Jiva-Hinsa) and internally intense passion. Related to these two things are meat eating, drinking wine etc.- he for­sakes all these (bad habits also).




In this way he ascertains true Deva:'Shastra-Guru and by tak­ing their shelter he tries to know his, intrinsic nature. Any person-­Lady-gent, old young and even rational beasts-birds (possessing mind/thinking faculty) can effectuate this "Purushartha"(ascertaining the reality correctly).

Facing towards Soul- Sight

The Cause Of Happiness is the absence (non-existence) of l­ness/oneness in the body and fruition of Karmas. Therefore, he makes effort of that sort by way of which the I-ness/oneness feel­ing in them ends and I-ness/oneness feeling in self-soul evolves. Sighting, worshipping, chanting hymn, uttering mantra repeatedly (of omniscient God), observing vows and studying (of religious books) etc. becomes true (meaningful). Then only from these the two ness (separateness) of body and soul is proved/is realised. He makes those acts (rituals) as means in such a way, owing to which he can prove/realise the two-ness/separateness of them. If the ef­fort of accomplishing discriminative-knowledge is not made/not attained then whole of the conduct (observing of rituals) and study of scriptures may only suppress the passion-attachment -aversion but cannot eradicate them and that suppressed one will only strengthen our (individual's) ego. Hence for strengthening the two-ness of body and soul, he, incessantly day & night, while eat­ing-drinking, sleeping-awakening, reinforces this contemplation that -"I am not body, I am not mind, I am neither notion nor thought I am sentient-soul knower of these." He fixes up this con­templation in each breathing (inhaling, exhaling). He takes this contemplation into depth of consciousness/sentience. Whenever he looks at the body then he knows that "I am not this". Breath comes and goes; there he knows that "I am not this". This con­templation goes on strengthening, to that extent that the I-ness/ mine-ness loneness feeling form of intellect goes on breaking/miti­gating. If someone is sleeping in deep-sleep and if he is called (by name) repeatedly then his sleep breaks/he wakes up. In the same manner here he calls to himself and wakes up from sleep (of delu­sion) only two deeds are there (to be performed). One is to en-




lighten the contemplation of distinctness of body and the second

is to negate/annihilate attachment-aversion. By this means only he comes into fourth Gunasthama from the first.

-: Fourth Gunasthana: -

When this Jiva (rational being), by making effort of touch­ing/experiencing the self (sentient) nature through the medium of true Deva-Shastra-Guru, ascertains that- "1 am one alone sentient entity, distinct from the body and the attachment, etc. dispositions happening in my "Paryaya"(mode/state of conduct attribute), be­cause of which 1 am unhappy, are not my nature but are the blem­ishes/foul dispositions; they are transient and perishable. When he perceives/experiences his knowing nature quite different from the body and attachment, etc. then he enters the fourth "vow less true believer" named Gunasthama. Although, the ascertainment of his existence ("Satta") distinct from the attachment, etc. has now been over, even then he is not finding himself able to crush the attach­ment -aversion.

Now he is introverted soul/enlightened self; His happiness unhappiness, good bad is not from other non-self things but is from his own self. Now, there is nothing his own outside the sen­tience. Now body is there but there is no I-ness/mine ness in it; the attachment, etc. dispositions are existing but knowing them to be foul dispositions produced by Karmas he tries to destroy them. Earlier he used to understand that in their evolution there is no fault of mine, these are produced due to (rise of) Karmas or some­one else has caused them. But now he understands that these are happening because of my own weakness/want of 'Purushartha', due to my effortlessness; therefore these are caused due to me and by increasing 'Purushartha' only 1 can crush them. The asso­ciation-disassociation of external things/paraphernalia is happen­ing due to rise of virtue vice (Punya-Pap Karma); As much as 1 will get attached with it that much attachment (affection) will be developed. Those associations of things, etc. are not the cause of happiness-unhappiness, rather my getting attached in them is the cause of happiness-unhappiness. Thus he understands his own




responsibility of happening of foul dispositions in the self, and for ending the foul dispositions he repeatedly takes the shelter of his (eternal) nature, tries to experience himself to be of sentient form. More he sees himself as of sentient form, more the attachment towards the body, etc. goes on lessening. Consequently he with­draws himself from the means of exceeding the passion. He does not even go near the means of increasing the passions, viz. meat, egg, wine (alcohol), gambling, stealing, hunting other's wife, prostitute, etc. ill-habits. Similar to these he does not embrace

any other ill-habit also and does not foster any addiction. e.g. eat­ing betel leaves, smoking bidi-cigarette, tobacco, intoxicants, tea, coffee, addiction etc. because the addiction is such a habit that keeps the soul dependent.

Up till now I was flowing with the flow of Karma. Whatever form of rise of Karmas came into being, accordingly so I was turning. Now I have understood that if I became introvert to­wards my intrinsic nature then the function of Karma can be checked. For example-suppose some person is pulling me by catch­ing my hand. Now if I myself also try to go that side only then puller's force and my force, both act together in one direction only, as a result of which I get pulled in the same direction with­out any interruption, rather with my own will. But if I could un­derstand that I can exert my effort in opposite direction too; then this is my freedom, when that person pulled me towards his side then I exert my force in its opposite direction. The result of this endeavor happened that whatever little pulling effect (jolt) has been felt this time, that has come as a resultant force which re­mained as balance force after subtracting my force from that person's force. This thing is applicable in respect of the rise of Karmas. If we instead of flowing in the flow of Karma willfully, apply our effort (Purushartha) in the opposite direction, i.e., in engrossing in soul's (sentient) nature then the fruit of Karma, not being that much, will be very less, rather it will be negligible with respect to earlier one.

Since at present he finds himself inefficacious/weak in miti­gating all sorts of passions; hence by quitting intense passions




and their external bases as specified above viz. seven bad habits, unlawful acts, non-eatable things, etc. and engaging himself in the acts of mild-passions, tries to eradicate them also. There, he con­tinues fostering his (sentient) nature by making the medium of / by taking the shelter of passionless omniscient Deva and Shastras (scripture) as preached by Him and the (so called) alive Shastra, i.e. Guru (possession less naked Digamber Jain monk) marching ahead on the same path.

              The merits/virtues found with Samyag-Darshan

-:             (Right-belief): -

Since he has now arrived at the level of sentience from the level of body, therefore, the seven types of fear too do not arise in him. "There will remain no existence of mine" -such sort of fear does never grow in him; even if the fear related to the rise of (conduct deluding) Karma is evolved in him due to want of spiritual-force, then he does not become its owner. Also the desire of reaping/enjoying the fruit of Karmas does not arise in him, be­cause he has ascertained well that devoid of the fruit of merit (Punya) and demerit (Papa) I am sentience only. Therefore he neither has longing for merit-fruit, nor hate for demerit-fruit whether the fruit is of his own 'Pap' or of the other. "Who is the object of meditation and guide for me"-no stupidity in this regard has now remained. By understanding the nature of the object of meditation he is taking the shelter of it. Now the matter 'of doing by seeing' has finished. He always tries to increase the spiritual traits and by withdrawing himself from other non-self things he makes effort to keep himself engrossed in his spiritual attributes. He has deep interest and extremely high affection for his spiritual advancement. He makes effort of moving ahead in the direction of spiritual-advancement. Renunciation feeling from mundane existence in the body and enjoying the objects of senses and en­grossment in soul's nature increases in him. He sees each living being to be of sentience- form alike himself; therefore the feeling of compassion towards them is created. For protecting the (life of) Jivas he gives up taking meal in night and adopts the drinking




-of filtered water only.

Living in this (lower) status, self-realisation at least once in six months definitely occurs, otherwise the fourth Gunasthana no more exits. If the (purity of) thoughts (faith) falls down then he again reaches the first Gunasthana, is touched by a Jiva for a very short time while descending from the fourth to first Gunasthana. Again if he corrects (purifies) his thoughts then he has chances of ascending up again.

-: Fifth Gunasthana: -

When a "Saadhak"(true aspirant of liberation) dwelling in fourth Gunasthana, makes effort of attaining self-realisation (pure passionless thought activity / Nirvikalpa-dasha) frequently then the "Apratyaakhyaanaavaran-kashaya" that hinders partial-conti­nence form of dispositions starts becoming faint/mild. When this (vow less true believer) acquires the ability of experiencing the self-soul once in fifteen days then he enters the fifth Gunasthana. There, internally the (rise of) "Apratyaakhyaanaavaran-Kashaya" is found absent; thoughts of renunciation develops and externally (in practical - life) he accepts to follow twelve small - vows (Anuvratas) etc. and the conduct worth eleven specific vows (Pratimas) begins gradually. There, in the absence of passion, whatever form of' Nivratti' (non-indulgence in passional acts) is found that is 'Charitra' (conduct), that is 'Dharma' (piety) and! What ever vows, etc. form of external conduct (in the presence of partial passion) is found, that, being the auspicious - disposition is of the form of merit - karma bondage. Now, we ponder over the characteristics of those eleven "Pratimas" (stages of' Shravakas ').


Now, he abandons all seven ill habits with oath forever. He gives up all those things, which are the cause of increasing pas­sion. For Jivas' protection he withdraws himself from such trades and business in which injury to Jivas is caused more. He aban­dons eating at night forever and he accepts eating the things of eating-drinking in properly cleaned-seen/checked condition so as



to escape from inflicting injury to Jivas.


The observance of five small vows (Anuvratas) three quali­tative vows (Guna-vratas) and four educational vows - thus total of twelve vows begins from this 'Pratima'. Though the vision! intention of' Saadhak' (lay observer of vows) is to end all sorts of passion, but he, due to not possessing much spiritual force, adopts the renunciation-path according to as much spiritual force he pos­sesses. And as much passion is still persisting, he knows and ac­cepts it as his own mistake/weakness. For ending that also he tries to increase his spiritual force. And increase in spiritual force is, since, possible by self-realisation only, hence for its attainment he makes effort. More increase in self-dependence causes more decrease in dependence of other non-self things. In external (prac­tical) life, the effort of reducing dependence of non-self things also is, in fact, done for increasing self-dependence. For example - the support of a stick for walking is taken first by a weak person, then as he walks without its support, slowly its support also gets quit. The soul, although, does not need any support (of other things), it is complete in itself, yet the want of spiritual force is there. As much is the support of other non-self things, that much is the dependence and want of self-dependence. Therefore, he increases his spiritual force, so the dependence goes on reducing.

Earlier the dependence was of indulging in injustice, improper conduct, forbidden food, etc. Now decreasingly that (dependence) remains limited to judiciously right behavior, proper conduct, injury less eatable food. Earlier he, in business, etc., used to in­dulge somewhat in lieing, stealing, etc., now that tendency be­comes free from lieing and stealing, etc. Earlier, the longing for possessions/paraphernalia was unlimited, now he keeps it limited. In this way he fixes the limit of craving, longing and desires.

In the manner as, when a motorcar is caused to climb the hill, then that car is checked by brakes from going downwards and is moved forward by accelerator; Similarly, the 'Saadhak' (devotee) checks his action and reflection from going downwards



by oath, resolution form of abdication and moves forward through self-realisation. Or it can be said that the act of both abdication and self-realisation is separate/different in the same manner as that of the regimen and medicine; whereas the medicine ends the disease and regimen does not allow the disease to increase. A disease less state is attained only when medicine is also taken and regimen is also observed. The advancement of soul is possible only when abdication in external life and realisation of self-soul internally is attained. We have already discussed this topic above under the heading- "Adhyatma and Charnanuyoga": 'Grahan aur Tyaga ki Ekta'. (Spiritual and Ethical Science: Unison of Attainment and Relinquishment).

Now, out of twelve vows, first of all, we ponder over the characteristics of five small-vows: -

1. "Ahinsaanuvrat" (Small vows of non-violence)

He (the sharavak of 5th Gunasthana) considers/treats other Jivas alike himself He knows what sort of pain he feels on getting pierced by some needle, so other Jivas too must be feeling the similar pain. Hence he does not behave with others by mind-words body in such a way with which if he is behaved by others will make him feel sorry. When all Jivas (souls) are alike himself then creating pain/troubles to others is in, fact, creating pain/troubles to himself In Ahinsaanuvrat the following things are inc1uded: ­

(i) He does not kill any Jiva intentionally /determinedly.

(ii) He does not utter such words due to which other beings

may feel sorry.

(iii) He does not think ill of other(s) even in his mind.

(iv) He does not think of committing suicide.

(v) He considers abortion/foeticide - by self or by getting it done to be an injury (Hinsa).

(vi) He does not follow or accompany such societies or per­sons whose aim or objectives is Hinsa (violence).

(vii) He never behaves inhumanly towards anybody.



(viii) He by being overpowered by greed never overloads the weight on labourers, rickshaw-drivers, etc. more than their. capacity can handle.

(ix) He takes care of his servants, labourers etc. that they get their meal, etc. in time.

(x) He never overloads weight on bullocks, horse, etc. ani­mals more than their capacity and timely feeds the food/grass/ water, etc. to these animals.

(xi) He never tames/nourishes the carnivorous beasts.

(xii) While walking on the road he walks by seeing down on the road so that no Jiva (insect/ant, etc.) is hurt/killed.

(xiii) Anything that he keeps or lifts or moves from one place to another place he does these actions with great care and super­vision (so that no Jiva is hurt/killed).

(xiv) He cooks or eats the food that he prepares and eats with a great care and supervision. He takes, uses the things, which are within limit of their expiry date.

(xv) He does not take/eat pickles, jam, sweets, papad (a thin crisp cake), badi (small lumps of pounded pulse dried in the sun) etc. of which usable time limit has been expired/are of many days old because the growth of Jivas takes place in these things.

(xvi) He does not use such cosmetics in which the killing (injury) of Jivas takes place for their manufacture.

2. "Satvaanuvrat" (Small vow of speaking the truth)

He does not tell lies; although he is still not finding himself to follow/ to practice the complete truth (in his daily life), neverthe­less he does not tell such sort of lie, due to which some harm or evil may be caused to others. In Satyaanuvrat the following things are inc1uded: -

(i) In business, he does not sell/give counterfeit or adulter- -ated thing to any person.

(ii) He does not cheat anybody.

(iii) He does not take or charge more money - more cost by telling a lie.

(iv) He does not keep inaccurate/false means of weights and




(v) He does not give or make judgment unlawfully/with

injustice feeling.

(vi) He does not file a false case against anybody.

(vii) He does not bear a false witness.

(viii) He does not disclose someone's secret matter out of jealousy or selfishness.

(ix) Having borrowed anything or money, etc. from some-

one he does not deny it later on.

(x) He does not betray anybody.

(xi) He does not give false or wrong advice to anybody. (xii) Untruth/lie is spoken because of various reasons- viz.

out of anger, greed, fear, laughter and criticise. He, therefore, tries to escape from these causes.

3. "Achauryaanuvrat" (Small vow of not - stealine)

By (taking oath of) this smaI1 vow he abandons stealing. The following things are included in this (vow): -

(i) He does not take other's goods with the intention of stealing

(ii) He neither helps other person in stealing, nor tells any-

body the means/idea of stealing.

(iii) He neither purchases nor seI1s the stolen goods.

(iv)He does not do that business which is legally forbidden.

(v) He does not prepare false ledger book, accounts, letter,

etc. He does not do stealing of tax.

(vi)He does not sell adulterated things by mixing cheaper things into dearer things.

(vii) He neither takes nor gives bribe.

(viii) He neither takes in his own use the wealth of any trust or institute and nor spends it in wrong acts/wrong sites.

(ix) He does not hide his capacity/potentiality while working as employee at other's work-place and tries his best so that the employer (owner) does not get harm of whatsoever kind.



4. "Brahmacharyaanuvrat" (Celibacy)

Another name of this small vow is contentment in one's own wife (spouse). Excepting his own married wife he treats all other ladies to be as mother, sister or daughter. In this small vow, the following things are included: -

(i) Abdication of keeping connection/coition with other's wife and prostitute.

(ii) He does not keep intense desire of sexual-enjoyment. (iii) He does not adopt unnatural means of enjoyment.

(iv) He does not keep terms with corrupt wanton women.

(v) He does not divorce (his wife).

(vi) He neither looks at women with affectionate-feeling, nor listens to amorous songs nor sees their dance, etc.

(vii) He does not look at their beautiful limbs. For this pur­pose he does not see the lust exciting scenes/pictures on cinema screen or television.

(viii) He does not remember the sexual-enjoyments enjoyed earlier.

(ix) He does not take rich and heavy food which cause sexual excitement/which intensifies the lust-sex feeling.

(x) He does not embellish his body.

(xi) Excepting his own son(s)/daughter(s) he does not get involved in other's marriage, nor causes others to marry.

5."Parigraha Parimanaanuvrat"(small vow of limiting one's paraphernalia/ belongings )

For mitigating the intense greed, he fixes the limit of his be­longings/paraphernalia through this 'Anuvrata' (small vow). The following things are included in this (small vow of limiting the belongings):-

(i) He keeps/stores the wheat, rice, etc. granary as per the need (of his family), he does not store these in bulk.

(ii) He does not take/accept gifts. He does not take dowry.

(iii) He does not do the work of commission agent in settling the marriages.



(iv) If he is a doctor or physician, then he does not prolong the treatment of any patient.

(v) Likewise, if he is an advocate then he does not give false advise to his client, he does not prolong his case.

(vi) Thus, whatever business he does, in that or in daily trans­action/behavior he does not do any proclivity by being over­powered by intense greed.

(vii) He fixes the limit of (a) the objects of re-enjoyment viz. wealth, house, clothes, ornaments, vehicle-car/scooter/horse and servants, etc. and (b) the objects of enjoyment-viz food/meal, drink­ing water, milk, juice, etc., hits-vegetables, etc. and enjoys within the fixed limit, not outside the limit.

In this way, he, through these five small vows, fixes the limit of his craving, longing and desires, which were not having any limit so far.

Now the characteristics of three qualities vows (Gunavratas) covered under the twelve vows are being discussed here:-

1. Dig -Vrat (limiting the area/direction of movement): -"For business/trade purpose, I will come and go up to this particular place (town, river, etc.) in this particular direction only;"-thus he fixes the boundary of region/area of movement and keeps no con­cern beyond the boundary of that area/region.

2. Desh -Vrat (reducing the area of movement fixed in 'Digvrat'): - He further reduces the area of his movement within the area decided in "Digvrat" for a particular period say for one two weeks or for every day and makes/fixes a temporary bound­ary. Through the medium of these two vows, whatever living be­ings and non-living things are found beyond the area fixed, one can safeguard himself from the notions and thoughts concerning to them.

3. Anarthadand -Vrat (curbing the purposeless activities): ­Purposelessly he neither does any action of the body, nor prattles (talk meaningless) unnecessarily, nor gives rise to meaningless thoughts-notions. He also does not give to others the items/in­struments causing injury to Jivas in any form.

In this way he escapes from all such useless things and



along with these three "Gunavratas", he also observes the four kinds of educational vows (Shikshavratas).

1. Samayika Vrat (vow of self- meditation)

With the objective of utilising one's time in self-meditation/ contemplation, he practises meditation at least twice a day - daily morning and evening. (This is what is called the vow of equanim­ity / calmness or Samayika Vrat).

2. Proshadhopavas Vrat (Fasting)

One day in a week of seven days he observes complete fast, and that day he spends his whole of the time in "Swadhyaya" (studying the scripture) and self-contemplation, by virtue of which the feeling of renunciation (retirement from the world) is fostered.

3. Bhogopabhoga Pariman Vrat

(Limiting the objects of senses/ enjoyable and re-enjoyable):­He forsakes daily some items/objects of enjoyment and re-enjoyment. He limits his daily activities also by curtailing them daily.

4. Atithi Samvibhaga Vrat

(Respectfully offering food etc. to co-religionists/votaries): ­He always reflects that some pious person comes to his home so that after serving food to that guest he may take his food. Besides this he tries his level best to fulfill the needs of poor wretched persons out of compassion/merciful feeling.

In this way by adding Anuvratas, Gunavratas and Shikshavratas (5+3+4= 12) the total vows are twelve, the begin­ning of observance of which happens from the second "Pratima" (oath of small vows). As the renunciation feeling gradually grows internally, accordingly the conduct in the Pratimas of later stages is followed.

Now, the differential / nature of the remaining "Pratimas"

(from the third Pratima and onwards) is being discussed here: -




 (Oath of Equanimity-Realisation)

Here (in this Pratima) the dependence is further reduced and the interest of self-realisation is increased. Hence he observes self meditation thrice daily - morning, noon and evening hours and the period of meditation too is found to be of one "Muhurta" (48 minutes) minimum or say 3/4 hour.


(Oath of observing complete fast)

Now, he observes one day fast per week without fail. On that day he by abandoning all sorts of work pertaining to house­hold activities and trade-business etc, keeps himself engaged in self-contemplation and study of scripture. This fast, from the du­ration point of view, is of three types - being of 48 hours, 36 hours and 24 hours.


(Oath of abdicating the use of wet fruits. vegetables and raw/ un-boiled water having life)

For protecting the life of Jivas he takes boiled ('Prasuka' or lifeless) water. He takes in use of food after making it 'Prasuka' (boiled) so that the Jivas do not grow in that item even after pas­sage of some time (hours).

6. "RAATRI-BHOJAN TYAGA - PRATIMA" (Oath of not taking food in night)

Taking food in night was already abdicated earlier now he (the holder of this 6th Pratima) follows this vow without any trans­gression by mind, speech and body - all the three. He himself does not take (any kind of) food and water in the night, nor serves food to others in night and nor approves it in anyway.


(Oath of complete celibacy)



Enjoying and keeping contact with other's wife/woman was already abdicated earlier; now he (the holder of this 7th Pratima) abdicates totally enjoying his own wife also forever. Since the contemplation of self-dependence is increasing fast hence the de­pendence on his own wife also has not to remain there.


(Oath of abdication of all commencements)

Earlier he used to do justified trade- business, now he (the holder of 8th Pratima) has given up all sorts of business, etc. ac­tivities. Earlier he himself used to make arrangements of his food, etc. Now he gives up even preparing his own food, etc. com­mencement form of activities. When any member of his family or some outsider person invites him for taking his lunch/meal then he accepts/takes his food by going there.


(Oath of abdicating paraphernalia/belongings)

Limitations of paraphernalia was already done by him ear­lier. Now he, by reducing it, keeps very very less belongings. Even he does not keep any concern with money, property, wealth, etc.


(Oath of not giving  advice/permission)

Earlier he used to give advice of business, etc. temporal acts to his sons, etc. Now he does not give that also. The holder of vows up to this 10th Pratima can live in his home.


(Homeless lay monk not accepting the food prepared for


The holder of this 11th Pratima gives up the householder's life and lives in the congregation of monks. Self-dependence has increased, therefore the dependence of home /homely life also has not been remained. In clothes, he keeps one loin strip and one



short cloth-sheet. He takes food through alms. He either pulls out the hair of head, chin and moustache or else, gets them cut by 'Ustura' (a sharp razor) also. For the protection of Jivas (ants, and other life forms, etc.) he keeps a 'Pichchhi' (bunch) of pea­cock feathers, and for cleaning hands after toilets work, etc. he  keeps a 'Kamandalu' (a wooden pot for keeping 'Prasuka water'). Such a form of 'Saadhaka' (aspirant of liberation is termed as "Kshullak". Later on, when the purity of thoughts is increased further, he (the 'kshullak') abdicates the short cloth sheet too and! Keeps only one loin strip. Such a 'Saadhak' is termed as "Ailak". ; This 'Saadhak' utilises his time in temple or in lonely place or by' living in the congregation of monks in self-meditation, studying the scripture, etc. by keeping himself. He observes five controls' (five 'Samitis'). He does not use any means of traffic/transport or any riding of horse, etc. In this way he goes on becoming free from all sorts of perturbations/dependence and his spiritual force goes on increasing. Up to this stage the 'Gunasthana' remains the fifth.

-: The Sixth-Seventh Gunasthana: -

When the layman (Saadhak) increases the time of self-ab­sorption through the practice (of self-meditation), goes on reduc­ing the gap (between two states of self-absorption) and he, ac~ cording to the description given above, goes on quitting the

dependence on other things and he accepts asceticism (become! Digamber-monk), then as a consequence of the growth of

spiritual force his capacity/efficacy of self-absorption is developed to once in one "Antarmuhurta', i.e., experiencing the self-soul once within 48 minutes and the 'Pratyakhyanavaran- Kashaya' - which is the opponent/destroyer of complete continence, by way of becoming faint/mild gradually, it gets mitigated/destroyed ultimately Only 'Samjwalan- Kashaya' (gleaming passion) remains in action / in the operative state. Prior to his becoming a naked possession less saint/observer of five great vows he used to follow the vows of non-injury (Ahinsa) etc. partially in the form of small vows, now  he follows them in totality in the form of great vows.


 He observes (in monkshood) five great vows, five carefulness’s        

(Samitis), conquering of five senses, six essential rituals, etc. total twenty-eight basic rites (Moolgunas).

We. now ponder over the characteristics of these 28 'Moolgunas:-

1. Ahinsa Mahavrat (Great vow of non - violence) Externally complete abdication of injury to all mobile ('Trasa') and immobile ('Sthawar') living beings is found by mind-speech­ body and by self-doing, getting it done, approving it, and inter­nally the three categories of passions- 'Anantanubandhi', 'Apratyakhyanavaran' and 'Pratyakhyanavaran', remain absent. Since the evolution of attachment-aversion itself is 'Hinsa' (in­jury to self) and absence of them is Ahinsa (non injury to self), hence the spiritual non-injury (Bhava-Ahinsa) in the form of ab­sence of aforesaid three categories of passion is manifested in Digamber Jain monk

2. Satya Mahavrat

Even (great vow of speaking truth) the thought of telling false words or speaking untruth does not arise in a true monk.

3. Achaurya Mahavrat (Great vow of non-stealing) Externally he (the naked Digamber Jain monk) does not ac­cept / take anything ungiven and internally even the thought of accepting/taking the other non-self things does not arise in him.

4. Brahmacharya Mahavrat (Great vow of celibacy) Complete abdication of the desire of (cohabiting with) woman or felling of coition by mind-speech-body is found and he keeps

always engrossed in the self-soul, i.e. he enjoys his own blissful nature.

5. Aparigraha Mahavrat (Great vow of non-possessive­ness)

Externally complete abdication of all sorts’ of things/belong­ings/paraphernalia and internally complete abdiction of perverse belief (Mithyatva), anger-pride-deceit-greed, etc. fourteen types of foul dispositions is found in a true possession less naked monk.

6. Irya-Samiti (Carefulness in walking)




To walk in sun-light (when necessary) carefully by seeing the earth at least four hands (6 ft) ahead (so that no Jiva, ant, etc.) is hurt.

7. Bhasha Samiti (Carefulness in speaking)

To speak beneficial - limited and pleasant words.

8. Aishana-Samiti (carefulness in taking food)

To accept / to take pure food devoid of 46 faults

9. Aadan-Nikshepan Samiti (carefulness in keeping pick­ing up Book, Kamandalu, Pichchhi)

To keep / to pick up the book, kamandalu, etc. carefully by seeing the place so that no Jiva is hurt

10. Pratishthapan Samiti (carefulness in removal of ex­creta, etc.)

To remove stool, urine, cough etc. bodily excreta by seeing the place devoid of Jivas, ant etc

11 to 15. Conquering the 5 senses

i.e. not to become dependent even a little on the objects of


16. Samata-Samayika

To attain equanimity through self- meditation

17. Vandana

To bow / to salute to passionless omniscient lord "Arihanta Deva”.

18. Stuti

To pray / to invocate to passionless omniscient Lord "Arihanta


 19. Swadhyaya

To study the scripture and engage oneself in self- reflection

 20. Pratikraman

To negate with repentance the blemishes and the foul dispo­sitions committed in the past.

21. Kayotsarga

To give up mine-ness feeling in the body and experience sepa­rateness from the body

22. Sleeping on the earth on one side of the body after mid­night.



23.   Not to clean the teeth by any tooth-powder or brush.

24.   Not to bathe/not to clean the body by himself.

    25. To remain unclad/naked without any cloth, as in birth


        26.To take food once in a day, in day-time.

27.To take food standing in 'hands-bowl'.

28. To pull off hair of head, beard/chin and moustache with hands.

Thus a Digamber Jain monk is possessed of twenty-eight basic rites (28 Moolgunas); observing them without transgres­sion is called conventional conduct, (whereas) the real conduct is to remain engrossed in one's own soul nature-only. When a monk moves from the state of self-absorption (soul nature) then his (ex­ternal) conduct does not cross the boundary (Laxman Rekha) of these 28 basic rites (Moolgunas). In monk state the "Sadhak"­monk remains fully self dependent; even no thought of taking food-­water or bearing heat-cold, etc. arise in him; he has no paraphrenalia (belongings) at all, i.e. he is free from all possesions to the extent that paraphrenalia even equal to the bark of sesame is not found with him. Naked Digamber monk is naturally free from all blem­ishes/foul dispositions just like a recently born male child. His nudity exhibits foulessness of the soul itself. That nudity is not brought in from outside but it comes from inner self where noth­ing remains for covering. When some languidness is felt in medi­tation & studying the scripture, and then if he gets "Prasuk-Aahar" (food free from Jivas) as per the process & manner described in the scripture, then he accepts / takes it. Monk's main objective is of self-meditation and studying the scripture, hence while taking the food he neither pays attention to its taste nor he discriminates whether the donor is poor or rich. While taking the food he takes it half stomachful, not full stomachful and he does not become a burden in any way on the food donor.

He (Digamber Jain Monk) considers all other living beings alike his own self. Now none appears to be mine or thine, i.e. no difference appears in any Jiva, therefore, no notion or thought of harming any Jiva even a little bit arises. Nature of substance(s)




appear(s) as it really is, hence the thought of false form does not arise. I-ness I mine-ness has been established in his own soul na­ture. Therefore all associations of things appear to be of other non-self form. Consequently no thought of accepting or taking other non-self thing arises. "Brahma" is the· name of the soul in which he dwells always - he remains engrossed in his own nature, hence the desire of enjoying other non-self objects does not arise. He has become full of soul, hence belief/engrossment in other non-self things remained no more. Belief, engrossment in other non-self things was existing till only when he used to believe happi­ness from other (non-self) things. Now it is being experienced that the beatitude which lies in soul engrossment cannot be any­where else. Therefore the belief in non-self things has been ended and the thought I action of accepting I taking of other non-self things does not arise at all. In this way the observance of the five great vows happens automatically to a (Digamber Jain) monk.

When he took the taste of his soul-nature then all the other tastes became tasteless / appeared him to have gone tasteless. Against the realisation of self-nature the desire of touching / tast­ing the non-self things does not arise on its own. When he saw (experienced) his soul nature then no other thing remained worth seeing. When he heard the "Anhad Nad" (Limitless voice) of his own nature then no other thing remained worth hearing. When he got engrossed in his own nature's- smell then no other thing re­mained worth smelling. Thus when he (the naked Digamber monk) took the shelter of his own soul then the curtailment / checking of five senses took place automatically..

The Raag (attachment) got reduced to such an extent that :0 addiction/craving remained towards any work. What it resulted in is this that now no work - walking, getting up or sitting down, speaking, keeping or lifting anything takes place without careful­ness. Even the thought of taking good food without seeing / as­suring its purity does not arise because he neither has attachment with body nor with food. No gaity feeling on getting the food and no sorrow feeling on not getting the food. Because of such an extremely lessened condition of attachment, even a little bit of 





notion thought does not arise to a monk about the agreeableness/ disagreeableness in the other (non-self) things, no external condi­tion / environment can cause ill feeling in his equanimity form of dispositions, as said / written by a spiritual poet (Pt. Daulatramji) in "Chhahadhala": - (Hindi Font-Kruti-20)


vfj fe= egy elku dapu dkap fuanu Jqfrdj.k  A

v?kkZorkju vflizgkju esa lnk lerk /kj.k AA


Meaning of above verse is: A true Jain monk always main­tains equanimity in all (agreeable-disagreeable~) conditions-irre­'5pective of whether he/she/it is foe or friend, palace or cremation ground, gold or glass, censure or prayer, offering oblation or strik­ing with sword.

Thus he (the Jain monk), within 48 minutes (AntarMuhurta) assuredly takes the taste of his blissful nature - experiences atten­tively his soul-nature. When his attention (Upayoga) diverts from the self-nature then it gets engaged in the study of scripture and in (twelve) contemplations and then again gets engrossed in his (bliss­ful) soul nature. He does not waste even a moment without self-meditation. As a cow does not feel satisfied by seeing its calf again and again, in cow's heart ever resides the calf only. Similarly the monk engrossed in pure self / immersed in pure meditation (Shuddhopyoga) does never forget his soul nature even for a moment; he wants to remain immersed in his soul-ocean of knowledge; he escaping from the worldly noise, uses to experience his own sentient god (the eternal blissful soul); he, by quitting the refuge of all (non-self things) has, attained the refuge (shelter) of his own sentient God - as if, he having become thirsty due to world- form/reincarnation form of summer season, is drinking gust fully his soul's tranquil juice.

Thus, the Aacharyas (chief of the order of monks) have de­scribed about the self-immersed monks that they even without speaking the words are explaining the direct path of liberation by the guise (nakedness) of their body alone. Those monks, even' besides having got greatly satisfied with (tranquil) juice of self


absorption conduct, want the same juice again & again. If they get engaged in auspicious thought activity due to the propensity of past impressions, then they understand that this danger has come on them which has caused them to enter the auspicious disposition form of fire. They again make effort to attain the juice of super sensible knowledge and bliss. Now the dependence (ref­uge) of omniscient - Arihanta / Siddha Gods also did not remain there, they take the refuge of their own soul- nature because they know that the refuge of omniscient God also is the dependence of other (non-self) substance owing to which they will have to get roasted in the auspicious fire; whereas the annihilation of karmas/ karmic matter will be caused by self-dependence/ by taking the refuge of the self soul. By such sort of deep self-meditation form of effort (Purushartha), by engrossment in self meditation and again when the 'Samjwalan-passion' (gleaming passion) begins to faint, then that monk on getting engrossed fully in the realisation / ex­periencing of the self soul does not return back again in the no­tional thoughts, rather goes on sinking in the depth of experience of soul- nature. At that time the spiritual advancement ahead of the seventh Gunasthana takes place- the purity, etc. worth eighth Gunasthana etc. are produced. The poet (Pt. Daulatramji), de­scribing that depth of

meditation has stated-



i.e. on seeing their (Digamber monk's) self-engrossed stable posture the dears get confused of their being a rock stone, and scratch their itch with their (monk's) bodies.

The virtuous (righteous) meditation (Dharma Dhyana) is found up to seventh Gunasthana. Its four kinds are described as: (1) Pindastha Meditating by focusing one’s attention (Upayoga) serially on five types of "Dharmas" (con­ceptual objects) as described in Jain scripture.

(2) Padastha To articulate & meditate on the in­cantations & alphabets laid by the Aacharyas and are famous in scripture.




(3) Roopastha : - To meditate on Samavsharan ( A very big circular preaching hall having twelve big assembly halls for human, sub-human & celestial beings who listen to omniscient Arihanta's preaching’s).

(4) Roopaateeta (#ikrhr): - To contemplate and meditate on the pure self and soul nature devoid of body, karmic matter & attachment aversion, and possessing the capacity of infinite knowl­edge perception- bliss energy.

These kinds (of Dharma Dhyana) are the indicators that from which ford (bank) the monk aspirant plunged into the water of intrinsic self-nature. These are the four kinds of those fords (banks). On some ford the level of water is shallow, one has to go far off for plunging. Some ford is of such type that one can enjoy the dive just by entering the ford. Here the duration (time period) of dive is shorter whereas it takes more time in descending in the ford. There, first the contemplation of discriminative knowledge is deliberated for diverting the attention from worldly objects body & sensual pleasures and the 'Saadhaka' (monk/aspirant) engages one's attention in self-soul nature by diverting it from outside objects through the medium of body’s nature, "Namokar Mantra" (incantation by which salutation to five supreme souls is offered) or through the medium of Arihanta's- Sidhha's nature. Here it takes more time in taking the shelter of the medium whereas it takes less time in taking the shelter of self-soul nature.

Spiritual Stages beyond the 7th Gunasthana

When a monk proceeds ahead from the 7th Gunasthana, de­scends in the depth of self realisation (pure thought activity) then he, from the stage of 'Dharma Dhyana' (righteous meditation) enters in 'Shukla Dhyana' (pure meditation); there in the 8th, 9 th lO th Gunasthana remains no shelter of the medium like that of 'Dharma Dhyana'. The deliberate thinking - reflecting activity has already been finished earlier; yet some un-deliberate thoughts are persisting by evolution of which the transformation - alteration of the knowledge object and the mental- vocal- bodily vibration-al



activities continues taking place undeliberately in the active part of knowledge (Jnanopayoga). These thoughts/notion are caused by subtle attachment (gleaming compassion); the thoughts arise in the same measure as much is the attachment (Raag) persisting - somewhat analogous to a diver who is going towards the depth in water but at present water bubbles are seen originating. No attachment pertaining to worldly objects - body-sensual pleasures exist here, rather it more or less, has been burnt fully, what exists is only a handful ash, that too is going to get finished by flying in the wind of self soul-meditation. The attachment (Raag) is ending and the steadiness/stability in sentience and the spiritual bliss too is increasing- such a supersensible bliss which is notable recog­nizable by sensory knowledge. Hence the question of its being possessed of by the Indras-Ahmindras (Lord of celestial beings) also does not arise. The same is said in ‘Chhahadhala’:

;ksaa fpUR; fut esa fFkj Hk;s, fru vdFk tks vkUun ygks A

lks bUnz ukx ujsUnz uk vgfeUnz ds ukfga dgks AA

('In the aforesaid manner the monk, who became steady in his soul nature, attained the in-desirable spiritual bliss which is not even possessed by Indras-Ahmindras - King Emperors.')

As a consequence of increasing steadiness in the soul (of monk) the duration and fruition bondage of karmic matter are getting diminished. The depth (of steadiness) in soul nature goes on increasing. In this way some 'Saadhakas' (monks) while pro­ceeding ahead of seventh Gunasthana, proceed ahead by mitigat­ing the past impressions of attachment, etc. according to his soul dispositions, whereas some other monks (saadhakas) proceed ahead by annihilating those impressions. The first type of' Sadhak' monks after crossing the tenth Gunasthana reach the eleventh Gunasthana- 'Upashant Moha' (subsidised state of conduct de­luding Karma), but the mitigated past impressions do not allow them to stay for longer period (not more than one Antar Muhurat), hence they have to return back in the downward Gunasthanas. On the other hand, the other 'Saadhak' -monks who proceed ahead



by annihilating the attachment impressions through the extreme profoundness of self soul meditation - by first step of pure thought activity (ShuklaDhyana), they reach the twelfth Gunasthana de­void of passions by annihilating totally the deluding (Mohaniya) karma.

There, in the 'Shukla Dhyana' the remaining three destruc­tive karmas (Ghatiyakarmas) namely 'JnanAvamam' (knowledge obscuring), 'DarshanAvamam' (perception obscuring) and 'Antaraya' (obstructing karma) also gets annihilated and at the same moment I in the first moment of the thirteenth Gunasthana the infinite knowledge, (omniscience), infinite perception (omni-vision / omni -perception), infinite spiritual bliss and infinite soul power - all those natural traits of the soul get magnified /attained. The energies I capacities which were getting somewhat manifested particularly in the mundane life, now they all get manifested. This is what is called the 'Arihant Awastha' (embodied omniscience Lord). Here the knowledge (omniscience) is established in the self-soul, in the knowledge itself; it is engrossed/immersed in ex­periencing the bliss of self-soul nature. Here (in this Arihanta state) infinite bliss is being enjoyed along with infinite power. The non-destructive karmas (Aghatiya karmas) are still active I operative, in the existence of which the formation of 'Samavsarana' (a very big preaching hall) takes place and without any effort or desire the letter-less divine speech (Divya Dhwani) emanates on its own naturally. Each living being present there gets the path of self-benediction, path of getting rid of miseries and becoming 'Paramatma' (Supreme Soul). When the duration of age karma is likely to end, then they - the 'SayogiJina' (omniscient conqueror) being situ­ated in subtle bodily vibration reach the fourteenth Gunasthana by checking the vibratory activity by third step of' ShuklaDhyana'. Here (in the 14th Gunasthana which is of extremely shorter dura­tion) they - the' AyogiJina' by fourth step of 'ShuklaDhyana', attains 'Siddhahood' (state of disembodied omniscient Supreme Soul) by destroying the four' Aghatiya karmas' and by breaking the connection with three bodies - namely' Audarika' (gross body), 'Taijas' (electric body) and 'Karman' (Karmic body). This itself is





the highest state of Supreme Soul devoid of any body, devoid of birth and death; it is in the perfectly pure state of the soul; by contemplation - reflection - meditation of which the mundane beings like us make effort of becoming like them.

What is the nature / characteristic of this purified soul! dis­embodied omniscient soul? Neither (any kind of) attachment nor aversion. The knowledge, etc. all attributes have attained the per­fection, have been fully manifested. Now nothing remains to be done. The soul has become 'Kout-Krutya' (having attained the aim perfectly and fully). Now nothing remained to be evolved / manifested. After perfect manifestation of the soul-nature noth­ing remains balance to be happened. That which was not acquired till date, has now been acquired by that self-soul nature and all that non-self matter which was accepted (in soul's constitution) has been quit. Now nothing is balance there to be accepted or to be quit. This soul has become Supreme Soul (Parmatma), blos­somed fully in knowledge- perception and bliss (Sachchidanand) and has become Sentient Lord (Chaitanya Prabhu). This itself is "Moksha" (Salvation / Emancipation) ; this itself is the unison of  right faith - knowledge & conduct. This itself is the nature of soul substance.


bd nsf[k;s] bd tkfu;s] jfe jfg;s BkSj

"See thyself one, know thyself one and remain engrossed in that one place."

Great are those Jivas who, on attaining this human male body, accomplished this work. The attachment form of fire is burning the soul, i.e. it is causing it to bear the infinite miseries; 'Oh self-soul ! Thou has indulged in passion-al acts in each birth. Now Oh soul! Thou has got the opportunity to engross in it by identifying thy own nature. Behold! This opportunity may not be lost any­where.




Lord Mahavira's Declaration of Freedom: -

1. Each living being is potentially' Pannatma' - Supreme Soul. He can become 'Pannatma' by gradually manifesting his potency. This great declaration of freedom is made by omniscient Lord Mahavira.

2. All Jivas of four Gatis (states of existence) who are bestowed with mind (mental faculty), irrespective of his being a 'Chandaal' (belonging to down trodden class of human beings), an animal or a bird, can attain insight- the right faith (Samyag-Darshan). Attaining of right faith means to have attained the true path of liberation.

3. The definition of' Dharma' (religion), which has been given! propounded by the omniscient Lord Mahavira, no body else could give it till date. He never said that- 'to worship me is religion’, but what he said is that 'the nature of substance is religion '. That which is the nature of soul-substance, that itself is religion. Fire's nature is hotness, sugar's nature is sweetness; similarly soul's nature is 'passion-less-ness', the same (nature) is Jiva's religion.

4. He gave us 'Namokar Mantra' - (an incantation of obei­sance to five supreme souls), in which He did not say to remember the name of any particular person; but He said that (my) salutation is to Him who has annihilated his passions- (attachment aversion), etc. blemishes, my salutation is to Him who has attained his nature; to them who also are engaged in annihilating their blemishes (attach­ment aversion) and attaining their (passionless) nature. This is really a wonderful 'Mantra'.

5. Lord Mahavira has explained the definition of' Ahinsa' (non­violence), which is all pervasive (applicable to all beings of the world).

 " vizknqHkkoZ%o [kyq jkxknhuka HkoR;fgalSfr A"

i.e., non evolution of attachment, etc. blemishes within our soul is assuredly 'Ahinsa' (non violence). This means the evolution of attachment, etc. blemishes itself is Hinsa (violence) irrespective of whether outside (practical life) Jiva dies or does not die. Such a nice definition (of Hinsa-Ahinsa) has not been given / explained till date by anybody.




1.  JNAN: - Knowledge.

2. ATMA-JNAN: - The insight knowledge of/by/for our own soul which is apart (separate) from the body.

3. Attachment feelings: - The feelings of Raag, i.e. feelings of closeness & attachment to all worldly things.

4. Aversion feelings: - The feelings of Dwesha, i.e. the nega­tive feelings of anger, deceit towards others.

5. CHETAN: - All living beings with soul and having the knowing and seeing power, also known as JIV A.

6. ACHETAN: - All non-living things with no soul and no power of knowing or seeing, also known as AJIV A.

7. KARMA: - The result of our actions, which always remain with our soul.

8. SAMYAK DARSHAN: - Realising and seeing that the soul has impurities like attachment and aversion feelings and to try to achieve their total absence from the soul.

9. SAMY AK JNAN: - The knowledge of ways of removing these attachments and aversion feelings from the soul and realise the true sentient nature of the soul without these feelings.

10. SAMY AK CHARITRA: - To practically remain steady in our true nature of soul without the attachment - aversion feel­ings.

11. GATI: - There are 4 stages of existence in which a Jiva

st       stays according to its own Kannas.

i).     i. Manushya (Human) Gati

ii). Dev (Residing in the Heavens) Gati

iii). Triyancha (Animal, etc.) Gati

iv). Narak (Residing in the Hells) Gati

12.          12.KARMIC MATTER: - The results of all actions done by



Jiva in all his previous and present lives, accumulated and attached to his present life &. Soul.      

13. General Nature: - This nature of the substance (soul) ! always remains the same.

14. Specific Nature: - This nature of the substance changes according to the state in which a substance (body) is found.

15. RELINQUISHMENT: - To leave completely everything; outwardly and inwardly.

16. GUNASTHANAS: - They define the position or state of purity of the soul. These are 14 stages of spiritual developments, which a soul can achieve. As the soul progresses towards realising its self-nature, it proceeds towards achieving the highest Gunasthan (14th).

17.   JIVA: - A living thing with a soul.

18.   BLEMISHES: - Shortcomings, faults, lack of perfection

19.   BENEDICTION: - The blessings

20.   DEVOID- Not possessing

21.   FLORA- All Vegetation

22.   FAUNA - All animals

23.   COGNIZANCE- Sentiency

24.   INTRISNSIC- Natural

25.   INANIMATE- Without life, dull, not lively

26.   NUCLEUS - The central core of anything

27. MUNDANE- Being ordinary, practical & occurring everyday or pertaining to the world

28.   CONCEIT-Excessive self esteem or vanity

29.   DECEIT- A lie, or any other dishonest action

30.   INDULGE- To gratify one's desires

31.   VANISH-Disappear

32.   VEHEMENT- Forceful

33.   CELESTIAL- Heavenly, divine, pertaining to the sky

34.   FORBEARANCE- To endure offences patiently

35.   CELIBACY- The state of being unmarried

36.   AUSPICIOUS- Fortunate, Leading to future success

37.RENOUNCING- To give up, leave or to disown 38. ANNIHILATION- Complete destruction



39.   FEEBLE- Weak, lacking force, inadequate

40.   VIRTUOUS - Pure and chaste, Righteous, upright

41. P ASSIONLESSNESS- Complete absence of all feelings of attachment and aversion

42.   DWELLING- To live or to reside at a place

43.   MALADY-Illness, or any disordered condition

44. NEGLIGENCE- Carelessness, lack of interest, not pay- -ing proper attention

45.   BEATITUDE- Supreme bliss of liberation

46.   ETERNITY- Limitless time, Infinite duration

47. IN CULCA TE- To impress the minds by frequent repetition or to develop

48.   DE GENERA TION- Progressive deterioration

49.   RE-INCARNATION- The rebirth of a soul in a new body

50.   P ARAPHERNALIA- Personal belongings and objects

51.   KARMIC-MATTER- A resultant of our actions and deeds

52.   VIVIDNESS- A very sharp, life like and clear image

53.   MALICE- III feeling towards others

54.   DISPOSITIONS- Natural temperament

55.   TANGIBLE- Able to touch, feel, concrete

56.   SAMANY A SWABHA V A- Equal and stable behaviour

57.   PARY A Y A- Each form of existence of life or a living


     58.KNOWINGNESS- Jnayak swabhava (or the property of

possessing know ledge)

59.   DIMINUTION- Decreasing

60.   RELINQUISHMENT-Giving away or leave everything

61.   TRANQUILITY- Peace

62. P ARA- Non-self objects or things not attached to one's


63.   SW A- Self Soul

64.   AFFLICTIONS- Miseries

65. DISCRIMINATIVE- to observe a difference between various things

66.   CONSTRAINT-The limitations

67. KSHA YO P ASHAMIC JNAN- That knowledge attained





with the help of senses & mind which increases and decreases and does not stay forever

68. SWA-ANUBHA V A- Self realisation or Atma -anubhav or Atma darshan or Nij Satta anubhava i.e. knowing your own soul and its intrinsic powers, rea1ising that the soul is not a part of your body (It is separate)

69. TRANSMIGRATION- Taking birth again and again in

different forms of life (or Gatis)

70.   OMNISCIENT-Having infinite knowledge

71.   PIETY- Religious devotion

72.   BAHIRAATMA- Extroverted soul

73.KASHA Y A- III feelings like anger, pride, deciet, greed 74. PURUSHARTHA- All efforts to rea1ise the self soul and

achieve moksha or salvation

75. DEV A- Those who have rea1ised their self soul and achieved moksha

76. SHASTRA - The scriptures in which the preaching of Devas are transcribed or written

77. GURU- Digamber Jain monks (or Sadhus) who show the way to attain Moksha & themselves walk on the path preached by Devas

74.PRA TY A KHY ANA V ARAN KASHA Y A- The passion which opposes the jiva to attain complete sanyam (self control)

79. PRA TIMAS- There are eleven Vows (Pratimas) which relate to the conduct & behavior of jiva

80. CONGREGA TION- A group of people gathered for wor­ship (pooja)

81. SAMJW ALAN KASHA Y A- The passion which opposes jiva to attain complete sanyam is its very feeble form

82. ANANTANUBANDHI: - The passions attached to jiva since time immemorial which promote the jiva to live in this world 

83. TRANSGRESSION: - To disregard law, to pass beyond limits


Note:- Although  utmost care has been taken while copying 

the book how ever if any error is notices that may be 

informed to us  or alternatively the article may 

be read after taking into consideration the corrections that may be 




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