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   Fundamental Features of Jainism.

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Self-realisation is essential; rest all is the so-called constraint

Soul's connection with attachment-aversion

Full of meaningless changes (modifications) in this human ­life, if any meaningful gain (attainment) is possible, then it is the realisation of one's own eternal sentience (sentient nature). How to attain that realisation? Prior to attaining the self-realisation, it is necessary at the level of intellect to understand correctly and in detail one's own nature. Inherent nature is that which does not change even on changing the condition (mode) of that substance and remains existing always as it is. For example- the nature of sugar is sweetness. If the sugar is mixed with clay, dissolved in water or heated, its sweetness will remain existing' as it is.' Simi­larly the nature of soul is consciousness (knowingness). Though the knowledge continues increasing-decreasing, but knowingness (knowing activity) remains existing in all conditions. If knowingness (sentience) is the nature of soul (Jiva) then what is the connection of attachment-aversion with it? Are attachment aversion also the nature of Jiva (soul)? For finding answer of these questions let us think about one example.

Suppose, sugar is kept in a pot on fire and is becoming hot.

There in that sugar two things are found together - sweetness and hotness. Now, in spite of these two things being found together, the sweetness is of sugar's own quality and the hotness is pro­duced with the contact of fire. Although the sugar itself has be­come hot, yet the hotness is not of the sugar's own, it is of the fire. And also in the absence of hotness the sugar sweetness does not become absent. Hence hotness cannot be the nature of sugar, hotness is separate from the hotness of sugar; the pot is also sepa­rate from existence of sugar. The existence of sugar lies only in



sweetness, on the existence of which the sugar exists and in the absence of which sugar does not exist. Now this example is being fit on Jiva's nature. Here in place of sweetness of sugar the knowingness nature of soul (Jiva) is to be taken and in place of hotness the attachment-aversion etc. (impure) dispositions are to be understood. The body is at the place of pot and the deluding karma is at the place of fire. Analogous to this example - in the soul also the knowingness and attachment-aversion (auspicious inauspicious dispositions) even on being found together, knowingness is the soul's own nature whereas attachment-aversion are, in fact being evolved due to connection with the delud­ing-karma. In the absence of attachment-aversion also the soul does not become absent. Hence in spite of their being present in the soul, the attachment-aversion cannot become the nature of the soul. The nature of the soul is knowingness only which exists in the soul always. Knowingness or knower ness itself is the knower of the self (soul). But from immemorial time, that knowing substances (jnayak) not experiencing the self to be of knowledge form is experiencing it to be of attachment-aversion form, nor of body form also. But you are of sentience form only (Chaitanya mantra). Then not experiencing the self to be of sentience form

why are you experiencing to be of attachment-aversion form?

These attachment-aversion are non-self produced acts (mode),

these· are not your inherent nature. Why don't you then experi-

-ence your own "Jnayak-Swabhava"(knowing nature of soul) as

you really are?

Attachment of soul with body

This soul is different from body, also along with its being different from attachment-aversion form of malice dispositions; as in the above cited example sugar is different from the pot or as the sword is different from its case. Even on being stated. 'sword of silver', in fact sword is not of silver, it is of steel (iron)only; its case alone is of silver. Even body and soul being found associated together both of them never become one entity. The differentia’s of both are separate. The differentia of soul is



Knowingness (sentience), whereas the body is of matter substances, possessed of touch-taste-smell-colour-see attributes and is an in­sentient entity. Suppose one hand of some person gets cut in an accident and it is lying before him. That hand is devoid of know­ing power but the knower is knowing it. We see this clearly that the corpse remains lying whereas the knowing substances goes (elsewhere) leaving that body (corpse). The attachment of body with soul is similar (analogous) to that of a cloth with the body. As on getting the cloth dirty the body does not become dirty, on getting the cloth torn body does not get torn and on destruction of cloth body does not get destroyed. Similarly on becoming dirty of body the soul does not become dirty, on getting cut or broken of the body soul does not get cut or broken, and on destruction of body the soul does not get destroyed. The body is an insentient thing; it does not have the power of knowing. But the sentient (soul) substance being possessed of the power of knowing knows the external objects through the medium of eye, nose, ear, tongue and skin. The eyes are not the knowing entity but as "the eyes know through the medium of spectacle" so is believed in the world. Similarly infect the soul knows through the medium (window) of eyes. The knowing entity is the sentient soul only, not the body. The body is merely a medium and that me­dium too is a medium knowing the external objects, other non-­self things only. When this sentient (soul) substance is engrossed in knowing the self( soul) then( at that time) no work (or instrumentality) remains of that medium too.

For seeing the self-different from the body and of sentient form, no help of any other substance is required. For knowing the other (non-self) substances the physical senses and light etc. other means are required necessarily, because this knowing is of outside (extroverted) nature. But in the act of self-realisation nei­ther light etc. nor physical senses are required because this know­ing is of inside (introverted) nature. This thing will become clear by one example. Suppose, one effigy of iron duly heated with fire is enclosed in a box. If some person looks at it, then first of all he will see the box, then on touching its hotness will be felt; the




-ironness will be known by him in the end of all. But if the knowing power lies in the effigy and if it (he) wants to see its (his) own form then first of all it (he) will see itself (himself) to be of iron ­form. It (he) need not reach the self from the outside like other spectators. Similarly, when this soul (Jiva) realises the self to be of self (soul) form, only then that act of self-realisation happens internally in the self only, the body and attachment, etc. disposi­tions are left outside only. The senses, etc. have also not to do any thing in this process of self-realisation. A blind person can also realise himself to be of sentient form in the same manner as does a person with eyes. On the contrary when we see our self to be of body form then our sight too becomes of that type only as that was of the seer of effigy, - first of all body is sighted and then the attachment-aversion, etc. are met with. Hence realisation up to the inherent nature of the self-soul from the outside is not at all possible. This is what is the basic difference between "Swanubhava" (self-realisation) and "Paranubhava"(non-self realisation). Therefore, for 'Swanubhava', the aspirant of liberation (Saadhak Jiva) is required to internally make effort of reaching up to the self-soul.

Diminution (Decrement) of the knowing-power

Infinite power of knowing exists internally in the soul. When that power gets manifested (revealed) in the pure self (soul) then it knows directly all the substances with their modes (pertaining to past, present and future) found in the universe (three-worlds). But in the present condition, in impure state its (soul's) power is reduced so much that this (Jiva) is able to know only a few sub­stances through the medium of eyes, ears, physical senses, etc. and with the help of light, external means, etc. The reason of diminution of knowing power is that Jiva has misutilized his (knowing) power. He, not utilising/not engaging it in himself / in his own nature, has used/engaged it in ‘karma’ (impure thought activities) and "karamphal" (fruits of karmas), i.e., he has wasted his knowing power in attachment-aversion, body and objects re­lated with body. On the contrary, if this Jiva utilises/engages his




knowing power in his sentient-nature then the same power, by way of increasing gradually on touching the highest point (of spiri­tual advancement), can modify into omniscience-form. But alas! It is a matter of great sorrow that whatever power is possessed by him in the present time, he is using /engaging that too in the object of senses and passional acts; as a result of which his knowing power is proceeding in the direction of diminution. If its misutilisation continues in the same fashion then by way of dimin­ishing gradually one day it will reach on its ultimate downfall state (lowest point); will be reduced to infinitesimal (part of the knowl­edge of an alphabet). Our knowledge, which has become depen­dent on the senses, we ourselves are the cause of it; we have not utilised (engaged) it at proper place. The proper place is our own (sentient) nature only. If due to impractice we could not engage it in that (nature) then we have to engage it in these means which supports/fosters our nature. Excepting these means, engaging our knowledge elsewhere is nothing but misutilisation of knowledge only and the fruit of which is increase in karmas (karmic-bond­age) and decrease of knowledge.

The concern of religion or Spiritual Science is only this much that whatever power (of knowing) is possessed by us, we ought to know its nature and make proper utilisation of it; so that it can proceed towards increasing growth. The knowing power and the attachment-aversion, etc. malice dispositions are conversely in­terrelated. When the malice dispositions increase the true know­ing power decreases and when the true knowing power increases then the malice dispositions decrease. Hence by engaging the knowing power in 'Swabhava' (one's sentient nature) its develop­ment and diminution of malice dispositions take place together. In this way when all malice dispositions get uprooted then the developing knowing power proceeds towards wholeness. There­fore, the absence of passions and the perfect ness of knowing power itself is the direct (real) religion.

At present our knowing-power is attached in the other (non­self) things; it is focused towards outside. It is to be detached from there. But if only this much thing is preached or understood




then, this is not a complete thing, because more important thing than detaching it is that-"Where it is to be attached?" By detach­ing from outside if it is not attached at proper place, not attached in one's own (sentient) nature, then there cannot be any possibility of (true) religion. Even if a false knower (unwise person) detaches his knowing power from the other (non-self) objects then "inside where/which side should he attach it"-is not known to him. At the most by detaching it from the inauspicious acts he attaches it in the auspicious acts. But that too is other (non-self) object. What­ever discourse is given for removal of darkness, its intention is not of running away from the darkness but is to bring light. On bringing the light, the darkness will automatically get removed. The person who does not understand thus the true meaning (of discourse), he possibly, does not possess the ability of grasping the discourse. When he will attain the power of distinguishing the jewels and consequently the interest of obtaining them will be created, then he will not ask as what to do of these stones lying with me; rather 'where those stones are left' - even this will not be known to him. The same thing is here in the present context. If the mundane existence, body, indulgence in sensual pleasures are required to be quit from this Jiva, then he is required to be acquainted with this meaningful, unalterable, eternal self-(sentient) nature which is just opposite to meaningless, alterable, transitory (per­ishable) things. He is to be informed that he already possesses that (nature) and it is this spot where absolute serenity (peace) and bliss reigns. And, if he has attained the power of identifying the self-nature and true belief (insight) is attained, then wherever he is standing-amidst this world, body and sensual pleasures - he will automatically run away from there.

What is important: attaining the "self' or abandoning the "non-self'?

For attaining happiness one has to withdraw himself from the outside things and engross in self (sentient) nature. Withdrawing from outside acts is ‘Vyavahara’ (conventional conduct) and en­grossing oneself in self (sentient) nature is 'Paramaartha' (real spiri-




-tual conduct). External shelters are of two kinds - (1) Worldly affairs', body and sensual pleasures, etc. all these are inauspicious acts, the fruit of indulging in them is 'Papa-bandha’ (irksome kam1ic-bondage). (2) By virtue of which fostering of self-nature takes place, fostering of ending attachment-aversion takes place, discriminating-knowledge is fostered, passionless ness is fostered­ such type of shelters are- Deva (omniscient God), Shastra (scrip­tures-divine preaching) and' Guru ' (naked possession less monk). They too although are "non-self' only from the view point of self nature, devotion in them too is, although, auspicious disposition owing to which 'Punya-Bandha' (wholesome karmic-bondage) is caused, even then worldly affairs are not fostered, rather passionless ness is fostered. Therefore, those (pious dispositions) are means of self-benediction. The third shelter is one's own sen­tient nature; in which the fruit, different from above mentioned shelters of remaining engrossed, is attainment of soul’s purity (passionless ness) by getting attachment-aversion finished. The Jiva (rational being) who wants to remain engrossed in one’s (sentient) nature is required to withdraw himself from the outside things. But withdrawing from the outside things is not religion (Dharma); religion is to remain engrossed in "Swa" (one's own sentient nature.)

Importance is not of 'how much relinquished', importance is of self-realisation, if really attained. If we did not realise the self, then the importance of relinquishment will crop in our mind. Since the importance is only of that thing which has been relinquished, hence it becomes the cause of boastfulness/ego. By such type of relinquishment, the egoistic feeling alone is fostered and the per­son who fosters his ego, he, as a matter of fact, fosters his mun­dane existence, cycle of (birth and death) transmigration. That ego- may it be fostered by relinquishment of wealth, property, etc. or by acquisition of wealth, property, etc. or may that ego be fostered through scriptural- knowledge; ultimately fostering of ego is nothing but worldly existence. It can end only when in our heart the importance of one own’s (sentient) nature gets awak­ened- 'of what kind is that self-nature?' - whose shelter is the true




means of becoming omniscient God; that Self-Nature, Self-God itself is 'Paramaartha' (real spiritual entity), Supreme soul, Samayasaar.

Spiritual and Ethical Science: Unison of Attainment and Relinquishment

Till date whatever sermon is given, that is the sermon of relinquishment but not of attainment (of peace, tranquility) along with it. Giving sermon of relinquishment only is half-talk. When the sermon of attainment also is given along with it, then the talk completes. Relinquishment and attainment- both of these are complementary to one another like the two sides of a coin. Such is the friendship and unison of ethical conduct and spiritual attain­ment. Or, unison of these two is like that of a rope, one end of which is, if, ethical conduct then the other end is spiritual (attainment). Rope's one end cannot be without its other end. (Similarly) attainment has concern with relinquishment and relinquishment has concern with attainment.

Without diverting the attention from ‘Para’ (non-self objects) it is not possible to come in ‘Swa’ (self-soul) and if one's sight (attention) rests only on diversion from ‘Para’ (non-self), then the thing of reaching in ‘Swa’ (self soul) is not intercontained in it ­then at the most what will happen there, is that freeing oneself from one ‘Para’ (non-self thing), the attachment with another 'Para'(non-self thing) will take place. If we, by cutting this rope of friendship/unison form of both the sides of scripture (relinquish­ment and attainment) make it in two pieces, then neither spiritual science alone is useful and nor ethical science alone (observing of external conduct alone) is useful. By cutting the rope both parts become one-sided views (monoism). And if their true characteris­tics- one having concern with the other are accepted then the ethical science (observing external conduct) will become complimentary of spiritual science (attainment) and vice-versa.

In fact, true path of liberation is evolved by the unison of spiritual attainment and observing of external code. More a devo­tee goes on attaining the state of concentration over the self-soul,




more lighter becomes the kam1ic-bondage and the external con­duct too goes on modifying accordingly. This is the unison. If the external conduct is not correct then the karmic-bondage too has not become lighter and the adoration of' swabhava '(self nature) has also not been attained - such is the rule. If some person moves (follows) from the side of external-conduct and tries to attain the self-realisation, then as and when he attains the self-realisation, then the same external conduct becomes true ‘Vyavahara’ (conventional conduct), it gets the (power of) reality.

Self-realisation: Jiva's own choice

As per above deliberation the knowing power of this Jiva is continuously attached in the non-self things concentrated towards the body. This Jiva sees himself in the body form, stands, talks at the level of body, then he finds (thinks) that health, beauty, intel­lect, educational degree, wealth, position, prestige, wife-son, etc. family men, race, society, nation, etc. all are mine, I am this only. He believes his absence in their absence, his existence in their existence. What result is that thousand types of thoughts and troubles (restlessness) related to these objects (even to the extent that the troubles related to all the various types of possible condi­tions also) crop up and due to getting entangled in these thoughts and troubles, this jiva continues experiencing unhappiness.

By chance anyone affliction (misery) gets mitigated for the time being only, then at that time other thousands are also found present and the one which has been mitigated again comes back after some time. Possibility of existence of all (sort of afflictions) still lies there. On reduction of one or two afflictions this Jiva considers himself to have become happy, but the real happiness is not here. That which he believes to be happiness is nothing but a fantasy of happiness. And when he stands (thinks) at all level of consciousness by giving up the level of body, perceives himself to be of sentience- form then there remains no cause of evolution of restlessness to him. At the level of soul, there is neither any dis­ease nor anyone's death; neither something has to come nor some­thing has to go; whatever is of the self (soul), it is always of the




self; and whatever is of non-self, it is always of the non-self. On attaining such realisation the cause of all sorts of afflictions and thoughts gets finished. That is why the chief-monks have preached ­Oh Jiva (capable soul!), Thou not seeing the self to be of body form, which really you are not, should see thyself to be of sen­tience form, which really you are from times, remain existing al­ways (in the same form). The act of seeing oneself to be of sen­tience form will make perfect thy knowing-power by increasing it gradually and will make you pure (in state) by withdrawing from thoughts tinged with attachment-aversion etc. You can do so in the present time; this is your own choice- whether you see your­self in body- form or in sentience- form. The consequence of see­ing oneself to be of body- form is that you have been reaping in­cessantly in eighty-four lacs "Yonis" (birth places of living beings) from immemorial time. Those who saw themselves to be of sen­tience-form they attained beatitude (supreme bliss of liberation). If you too want to attain same quality of supreme bliss then you should also see (experience) yourself to be of sentience- form and stay in the same status. You have to not get anywhere outside, only you have to come on the level of consciousness from the level of body. As on the level of body, whom you understand to be your neighbourer, the attachment of mine ness about them is not developed in you. Similarly on arriving at the level of sentience, the wife, son, etc. wealth, property, etc. and the body, all these will appear to be just like neighbourers only.

Body and sentient- nature both are with you. You yourself are the experiencer / realiser. You are well versed in experiencing the body to be of self- form. Now instead of body, in the same way, you have to experience the sentience to be of self- form. At the level of body you possess the discriminative- knowledge too; you do not believe/accept other's property as to be your own. Same type of discriminative-knowledge has to be attained by you at the sentience-level; this thing depends on you only. With that discriminative knowledge you need to stay in your (sentient) self only. In this way you will attain the state of beatitude. The Acharya monks say further that they are experiencing the same beatitude.




Now once for a while only, believing in their preaching’s thou is required to see thy nature of sentient form distinct from all other substances- that is what thou really is, then thy affliction/misery of endless period will get finished. As you have been seeing your­self to be of body form and of attachment-aversion form; like that you were neither in the past, nor is in the present, nor will become anytime in future. This body is a material substance (insentient thing); none of its condition of whatsoever- form can influence your sentient- nature; even by its destruction you cannot get de­stroyed; its (body's) importance too is till then only as long as you (soul) are staying in it, otherwise people will not touch it even; will get it burnt. It has no value; the value/importance of thine, is of your sentient-element. Hence the realisation of the soul (one's own sentient nature) is essential, rest all is so called constraint.










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