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   Fundamental Features of Jainism.

The science of Attaining Godhood

"Jain Dharma"





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Section- 2

        Basic Truths Ascertainment of Reality

                                   (Intrinsic Nature of Tatvas)

   Science of Soul

If stated negatively, then absence (end) of attachment aver­sion and if stated positively then attainment of the highest beati­tude spiritual bliss itself is the real visible Dharma (religion). From the view point of means, the method and science of ending at­tachment aversion is also termed as Dharma. Lord Mahavira at­tained the state of the highest beatitude by annihilating the attach­ment aversion totally and preached this "Science of Soul" to all beings of the world for their benediction. The mundane beings are lying in impure state and the feeling of attachment aversion itself is their impurity. Since how long he (Jiva) is impure? If he was pure earlier then how and when did he become impure? The an­swer to this entire question is: The gold dug out of the mine is found mixed with earth and other impure substances. It is not so that earlier it would have remained pure, and became impure later on, but the fact is this that it was impure since eternity, yet the capacity of becoming pure was also lying in it since ever, and now by a special process of metal science it can be made pure.

Exactly same is the condition found with mundane being. It too is unsure since eternity, and the capacity of becoming pure is also found in him inherently since ever. The special means of probing the self soul is also there and the same is called the Science of Soul in the above heading. But, where as there is so much similar­ity in the example and the subject matter being explained through the example, there also lies a serious difference between them because the example is always found applicable partially only to the subject being explained and not fully.It is necessary to under-



stand that difference too. The gold dug out from the mine is a lifeless substance; some mineral expert is required for refining it. But the Jiva is a sentient substance, he himself is capable (effica­cious); by understanding the true cause of his impurity and by adopting the right means of purification, he has to purify himself. Neither someone else bears the responsibility of purifying him nor he possesses the capacity of purifying other Jivas. Those souls, who could free themselves from the disease of impurity, can show / guide us the way and can only impart the knowledge of that science to us and by seeing them we ourselves can inculcate in us the urge and inspiration of becoming like them. This effort, we have to make ourselves. By purifying himself Lord Mahavira preached all mundane beings, addressing them - "Oh capable souls! You too can evolve the pure state in the same way as I evolved it”.

Jiva's relation with Body & Karmas and Re-Birth (Reincarnation)

Though this Jiva (soul) possesses knowledge and perception nature, yet in impure state of existence it is found attached with karmic matter. Owing to that karmic attachment it externally has got a physical body and internally having (staying in) attachment aversion form of foul dispositions. (Because of) not knowing the self who I am, what is my characteristic (nature) etc. "- being ignorant of such sort of understanding - he is believing the body, mind, speech as to be the self soul and anger, etc. (foul) disposi- tions as to be the nature of the self. Whatever body he gets, the same body form he believes to be the self, generation of body as to be the generation of the self, degeneration of body as to be the degeneration of the self. On developing some disease in body be­lieves self to have got diseased (patient), and on getting body free from disease believing self to have become fit (healthy), where as the nature of substances is opposite to this. The existence of soul substance is separate; the existence of body is separate; even on getting end of body the soul does not end.

The Jiva (mundane being) reincarnates. Each soul, having



 whatever type of (good-bad) thoughts & acts it does, according

to those dispositions only it obtains the new state of existence                    (Gati). The Jivas whose thoughts & acts are straight forward, are  

devoid of deceit & hypocrisy, they attain celestial state of exist­ence; (But) whose thoughts & acts are deceitful, who utter some­thing and do something else, they reincarnate as beasts, birds, etc. Those Jivas who have less involvement in worldly acts and are comparatively self-contented, reincarnate as human beings. And those who have more involvement in worldly acts and are desir­ous of having more & more paraphernalia (belongings), they get  hellish life. Similar to attainment of Gati (state of existence), the attainment of associated objects, atmosphere, etc. also takes place to this Jiva exactly in accordance with his past deeds (thoughts & acts observed in his previous birth). Some take birth in rich family and some in (pauper) poor family. Someone born in poor family goes in rich family by adoption, etc. To someone, all agreeable things become easily available with very little effort only and some­one does not get (the same things) even besides his putting a lot of efforts. The peculiarity of karmic matter (so bonded in the past) is revealed from all these things. Whatever form, good-bad thoughts, acts are done by this jiva (mundane being), according to these dispositions only the bondage of karmic matter takes place and latter on in due course of time he gets similar fruit through the instrumentality of (rise of) karmic matter. The fault is not of the karmas, it is our own (fault). Karmic matter is mere a medium (instrumental cause). Whatever form of seed is sowed by this Jiva, exactly the same fruit is reaped by him.

Though this Jiva, owing to the association of karmic matter is found holding the aforesaid types of different & peculiar condi­tions, yet its inherent nature is continuing in it as it is by remaining untouched with all such (modificational) changes and foul dispo­sitions. How can we identity that sentience? For this, we will have to understand the reality (nature of substances) with a little deepness & subtleness.





Holding uniformity with specialties. Each substance whether it is sentient (soul) or non-sentient (non-soul) is of one general (uniform) form with vividness nature. General (uniform) and spe­cific - both of these are the properties of a substance; or we can say that -

        Substance = "Samanva"              "Vishesha"

                                General Nature              Specific Nature

                                (Unalterable)                 (Alterable)

                                Inherent                        Specialities

'General' (uniformity) is that basic inherent nature of sub­stance which never changes. Whereas, whatever state or condi­tion in whichever moment is held by a substance that very state (condition) is its 'specific' nature. The modes or the conditions of a substance continue changing (every moment). For example ­There was a crown of gold. Then after breaking (melting) it, a necklace was made out of it and in due course of time by breaking that necklace a bangle (new ornament) was made out of it. Thus' (in this process) the conditions went on changing but gold re­mained existing in gold form. In this example the crown, the neck­lace, the bangle etc. are the specialties and the gold-ness is the general (uniform) nature. The modes (conditions) are perishable, but the basic inherent nature of substance is imperishable, eternal and constant. Similarly one boy attains the state of an adolescent, then as the time passes on, he becomes adult from adolescent, and old from adult. The boyhood, adolescent, etc. conditions are changing but the human is existing in human form. Even if the conditions are changing, the humanness in the general (uniform) form is 'as it is' (unaltered) in all these specific conditions. The same thing is applicable in case of material objects; e.g. the milk is put to set in curd form (by mixing some form of yeast), then butter is made from curd by churning it and Ghee (clarified but­ter) by heating the butter. Here in all the conditions of curd, butter etc., the milk juiciness’ is existing in one form. Or, for example ­the matter substance1was in one condition of tree-form of mol-



-ecules, then it was cut, so it got turned into wood form. Then that wood got turned into coal form on burning and thereafter that coal also got turned into ash-form gradually, but the matter sub­stance is still existing in matter form.

Now we take another example of sentient being. One hu­man-being that duly died with intense sorrow feelings. So he be­came a beast, and later on he again attained human-birth form beast-life. The conditions (states of existence) Went on changing but the living being (soul) is the same in 'as it is' form. In the same manner, some soul underwent malice form of dispositions, then it underwent attachment form of dispositions by ending mal­ice (aversion) feeling and later on it turned into attachment-less-ness form of dispositions by ending attachment feeling. Besides all these changes and dispositions, the soul substance remains existing in its own: soul form. Such a change (of modes) goes on happening incessantly in all substances. To undergo change (every moment) is the nature of substance. Each material object goes on becoming old form new condition and such a change in that thing continues happening every moment. The leaves (pages) of a book get pale during the course of thirty-fourty years, its paper gets weak: (tom out). It is not so that this change in it has occurred after forty years. That paper has turned pale and gone weak: every moment. A child does not become young all of a sudden or a young person does not become old all of a sudden, but he goes on becoming old every moment. However the subtle change, the modification tak­ing place every moment does not become tangible (visible) to us. When lot of time passes on, it becomes recognizable to, us. Only' gross change is recognized by our intellect. Matter will change or modify into matter form only. Soul will change or modify into soul-form only. The function of soul can never tress pass (violate) the soul's (sentient) nature and the function of matter' can never trespass (violate) the matter's (insentient) nature. In other words, the soul (sentient) substance can never become insentient and insentient substance can never become sentient.

The 'General' and 'Specific' are, although, the qualities of one and the same substance, but (both) are different from one




another. The General nature or characteristic is one and the 'Spe­cific' nature is many folds. The 'General' nature is unchangeable imperishable whereas the' Specific' nature is changeable-perish­able. Though the 'General' & Specific characteristics are differ­ent, yet both are inseparable-they cannot be divided from one another (But their separate knowledge can be attained assuredly because their characteristics are separate from each other). Or it can also be stated so, that it is impossible for a substance to exist either with its 'General' characteristic or with its' Specific' char­acteristic, i.e. existing either of mere' General' nature or of mere 'Specific' nature is impossible.

     In fact the quality of continuity of oneness, uniformity, itself in different specific conditions (modes), which occurs one after the other, is termed as general nature (Samanya Swabhava). The 'General’ characteristic of substance is one constant (inherent) nature eternally existing in its all-specific conditions similar to that of a thread in a necklace of pearls. Clay ness is a general (constant) nature and the clay, clay-pot, piece of clay-pot etc. are its specific conditions; i.e. the general (constant) nature is pervasive in one form in all-specific conditions. The specific nature or conditions are changing (whereas) the general nature is existing in one and the same form. Similarly the soul is existing in one sentient form but his conditions (modes) are changing externally and internally in two ways. Externally this soul from bodily connection point of view. some times modifies as human being, some times celestial being, some times animal being and some times as infernal (hell­ish) being. And again in human etc. states of existence, as men­tioned above he turns (modifies) into child, young, old etc. (bodily) forms, on  the Other hand, from internal (changes) point of view, at times anger, at times pride, at times deceit, at times greed form of foul dispositions, and at times passionless pure dispositions, devoid of  passion dispositions are evolved in this soul. But in all such states 0f dispositions the sentient (soul entity) is eternally existing m one sentient form. It is imperishable (immortal) and 'always remaining in one constant form.




Why to know essentially the General & Specific nature of the substance?

The substance is of General & Specific form or of substance & modification form of entity. But due to not possessing the knowl­edge of one general-uniform nature (substantial nature), we, have been believing, knowing and experiencing the substance to be of specific/modificational form only. In other words we can say that we have believed in known and experienced the specific/ modificational form of the soul-substance as to be the complete substance. Consequently whatever body, etc. associated things and attachment, etc. malice dispositions were present in the modifica­tion (Paryaya) only, we have established in them our I-ness, one-­ness, ownership and mine-ness ; as a result of which the increase in Karmas (Karmic matter) and fruits thereof only have been tak­ing place. Now if we could attain the knowledge of substantial constant nature (Dravya-Samanya) then the feeling of oneness, mine ness & I-ness in the state of existence/specific mode will get finished and a belief / faith of self (soul) exactly identical to its true nature in substance-mode form/General-specific form as it really is will be evolved. Then, though the body w1ll remain there but it will appear perishable and associated to us as it really is. The attachment, etc. feelings too will be generated but those will not appear to be soul's own nature but will appear to be of malice form and perishable-as they really are. Then in the absence of attachment, etc. & body etc., the end or absence of my soul cannot be there - such a crystal clear judgment will be effectuated.

When (during the state of perverse belief) one used to feel & experience oneself to be of some mode form or body form or attachment, etc. form, then the attachment, etc. used to increase. Now if he turns to believe & experience himself to be of constant substance form, then the attachment, etc. begins diminishing and the soul, by way of gradually being free from attachment, etc. becomes pure (passionless) and the Karmas which were the in­strumental cause of the association of body, etc. also get annihi­lated. Also the beginning of this path of spiritual advancement is possible only when one believes in the complete multifarious na-



 -ture -of self-soul substance in substance-mode form; general-spe-

cific form. By neglecting the mode/specific nature when one lays importance to his constant-substance nature / general-uniform nature of substance and experiences himself to be of that form,

then only self-realisation will get evolved. Therefore, knowing the general-specific nature of (soul) substance is not only important

but is inevitably imperative & essential.

Symbolic Method of Explaining General-Specific Nature

It is sure that the beginning of religion (religious-life) is not '1t all possible without identifying the self-soul's general (eternal) sentient-nature. But because of remaining busy in specific states (modes and qualities) and having mine ness feeling in them only, we the mundane-beings are finding difficult to catch (to fathom) that external sentient nature. Though in the above cited examples pertaining to matter-substance, it is easy to catch (understand) goldness, milk juiceness, c1ayness etc. but we are finding difficult to reach up to that Eternal General Sentient nature of the self soul which is beyond the celestial, human, etc. external states of existence and anger etc. internal (malice) feelings and different from them. In our present situation we are standing nearer to the specific states (modes & qualities) and we are far off from the general constant nature. Hence it will not be wrong to express the specific states by the word "This" and the general constant nature by the word "That" and then through this symbolic representation the whole of the substance will be expressed by "This + That".

Something, which can be shown & pointed out by finger, it is "This" and that which cannot be seen but which has existence, which cannot be known (through senses) but which has existence and is present it is "That". The science can know "This" and which cannot be known by science is "That". The modem science is concerned with "This" and the religion is concerned with "That". Due to this reason science and religion have no matching, "This" can not be "That" and "That"' cannot be "This", yet both of them are not separate (entities) "This' is very near and "That" is very far off. "This" can be known through intellect, mind and senses,




"That" is experienced but on expressing, or narrating through words it becomes "This". Even on attributing some name to it, "That" becomes "This".

The (sensory or, scriptural) knowledge has its limitation but the experience has no limitation. That is nearest also and farthest also. If the substance as a whole is taken to be a circle then 'That' is its nucleus - (centre) and "This" is circumference. The nucleus (centre) is of one point (fixed) form whereas the circumference is an endless round.

Religion says - you are 'That' only. You need not go on any pilgrimage. You can get (realise) it here and just now. If you could cross 'This' then you will be in 'That' only, for going to centre you will have to cross the circumference. The centre is not the circumference, if it would have been circumference, then by now you would have reached. But if you run on circumference then also, you cannot reach on the centre. For that you will have to take a leap by facing towards the centre. This is the reason that even the highest conduct and the highest (deepest) studies, which are the parts of circumference only, cannot take you to sentient form of soul centre. For reaching the centre, taking leap from circumference is necessary.

That which has some name is 'This' e.g. you are a gent / a lady- these are also the names. Labeling is nothing but circumfer­ence only. Some centre is there which is without name. Being gent-lady, young-old, healthy-unhealthy, beautiful-ugly, all these are the parts of 'This'. Beyond all these is something, if that is realised (experienced) then 'That' is touched (attained).

We live in a dead world. This dead world itself is 'This' and that which does not die is 'That'. Saying God to God is also stick­ing label on it. If we are in "Nirvikalpa" state (in the state of pure thought activity) then we are 'That', and if we are in thinking mood (in the state of impure thought activity) then we are 'This'. When we are in thinking state then (at that time) we are not in our soul. As much we go in deep, thinking state, that much far off we go from 'That'.

The society does not take interest in our 'That' (But) it takes


interest in our 'This'. This is tinged with our ego and connect with our name, with our parents and family, with our education, with our post, with our sect (religion), with our language, with our country. All these are the parts of our 'This' and not with 'That'. 'That' is not connected with anything. 'That' is one alone; 'That' is absolute in itself. When once 'That' will be realised (ex­perienced) then 'This' will appear to be an external show only. Then everywhere (in all beings) 'That' will also be seen. Then 'This' will appear lying far off and 'That' will come nearer. Our burning question is that whether we are surviving in 'This' or in ‘That’? If our everything is (appear to be) in 'This' then our misery can in no way, be eradicated and if we are (surviving) in 'That', then there is’ no cause of becoming unhappy.

If some person is playing his role in a drama, then whatever role is there, that is 'This' and the person playing that part is 'That'. While playing his role he knows who is he. Even on becoming profit less fame-defame, life-death of ' This ' he does not feel happy-­unhappy, because he has established himself in 'That'. For him 'That' is nearer and 'This' is far off. Similarly the pot is 'This' and clay is 'That'. Both are found together but on destruction of the pot, the clay does not get destroyed. Even on breaking of the pot, the clay exists in as it is form. Similar is the condition of the soul. The sentience or consciousness of the soul is 'That' and anger, etc. malice conditions are 'This'. If we are believing the body and anger, etc. as to be our own (nature) and not believing the sen­tience as to be our own (nature) then we, not knowing 'That' have believed 'This' only to be 'That'. 'This' is perishable. Hence by destruction of 'This' we are believing the destruction of ‘That’. For attaining correct knowledge, the knowledge of 'This' and 'that' is a must. If one believes in 'That' only, then also his knowl­edge is not correct, or if he believes in 'This' only, then also his knowledge is not correct. Believing 'That' to be 'This', or 'This' to be 'That' or believing 'That' separate and 'This' separate, then also he would not possess the correct knowledge of the nature of substance. Even besides being found together in each moment of time, 'This' and 'That' are different too. 'This' is not found with-


out 'That' and 'That' is not found without 'This'. But 'That' is not 'This' and 'This' is not 'That'. One who does not know 'That' in his 'This' itself, 'That ness' is taken for granted. Hence for get­ting quit 'That ness' in 'This', the effort is made to let him under­stand 'That'. And the people who do not believe in 'This' and regard it to be false, hallucination, illusion etc. effort is made to impart them the knowledge of 'This', so that both the types of persons can attain the knowledge of 'This + 'That', and may attain the correct know ledge of self soul-substance. After gaining the true knowledge, one has to move from 'This' and has to live in 'That' form; this alone is the path of happiness (spiritual bliss).

The World of Specialties: Like a Drama or a Dream

Suppose any actor while playing his role forgets his original form (identity) and believes his part or role as to be a reality in that drama or film, and consequently he starts feeling happy-un­happy. Then how can his unhappy state be removed? Its means is quite simple. If he is made to realise his original form which he has forgotten during playing his role, then his role will remain a dramatic role only but not a reality, and while playing his role also his becoming happy-unhappy will be eradicated. This is the only means of ending his unhappiness. Changing the role is not the right means because the roles of pauper, affluent, weak, strong etc. will continue happening. But if his feeling of his true form remains existing, then whatever type of role he is given to play he will not feel unhappy even besides playing that role.

Exactly same is the condition of this Jiva. In the form of most fundamental formula of spiritual science, first of all Lord Mahavira said that only by taking the shelter of our 'That' (one eternal) sentient-general nature this Jiva can finally end all attach­ment- aversion feelings. Holding the embodied form as human, beast, etc. and the generation of anger- pride, etc. foul disposi­tions, are the specific modes only of that sentient substances; the path of spiritual advancement (progress) is to establish identity ­I-ness & mine ness in that general sentient nature, different from all these transitory perishable conditions. This Jiva too, not iden-




-tifying himself, has believed the role of karmic-matter as to be real and because of this he is feeling happy-unhappy. For escaping from misery, he, from time to time tried to change these roles and ace cording to the rise of his karmas some times his role also got changed, and then he considered himself to be happy. But differ­ent from these roles is his (soul) nature that he did not try to know. If he could have tried, then the illusion of reality in that role would have vanished and it would have remained a drama only. Then whatever roles he would have been given, his becoming unhappy in them would have been impossible.

To see this plight able condition of Jiva, Lord Mahavira said that if you would continue believing reality in karma-produced roles, then for playing newer roles you will continue accumulat­ing fresh karmas and according to (rise of) these karmas you will have to play roles. Further if you will believe I-ness/mine ness in them then again the accumulation of karmas being cause of newer roles will take place. Such condition is continuing taking place since eternity. If by identifying the self you could understand the karma produced role as to be just a role, only then neither you will be happy- unhappy due to that role nor you will get the accumulation of fresh karmic matter for playing newer roles. And in this way in the end when thy last role also caused due to for­merly accumulated karmas will get finished then devoid of karma produced roles you will remain exactly as you really are, in your own self.

It would be better to understand this thing with little more details. This Jiva is playing the role of human, celestial, beast, infernal being incessantly as per the rise of one's karmas. Since he does not know himself that I am a sentient soul, therefore he be­lieves that role as to be his own (real) nature and accumulates fresh karmas by becoming happy-unhappy. As a result of these karmas he again gets newer role (to play). If good karmas are accumu­lated then he obtains the role of a rich person King-emperor, dis­ease-free healthy, beautiful, intelligent person, Indra (Lord of ce­lestial beings), etc. If bad karmas are accumulated then one ob­tains the role of a pauper-poor person, diseased-crippled-ugly-




stupid person, animal-bird, etc. Whatever good-bad roles he gets, it is not dependent on this Jiva's will, but is dependent on his previously done accumulated) karmas. Since this Jiva does not know himself and his inherent nature, so he believes in that Karma­ produced body, that "I am this (body) itself and along with that he believes mine ness in whole of the family as well as in all external things also. Being dependent of such sort of belief this Jiva feels unhappy and weeps when these things are disassociated, crying 'my so and so (beloved) died, I (myself) died, 'my that particular thing is lost, "I am looted" etc. in many ways, or, even when no person or thing has been disassociated from him, then • "That particular thing is not availed of by me" - thus the absence of any of the objects remains pinching him. e.g.- the absence of good health, wealth, post and prestige or the absence of wife, spouse, children, etc.

In this way when he feels unhappy (miserable), then believ­ing the present condition to be the cause of unhappiness he tries to avail the other condition. For example- one, who believes pov­erty to be the cause of unhappiness wants to become rich (wealthy person). But he does not understand that happening of change in these conditions is also dependent of previously accumulated karmas only. Hence, by change, if the rise of karma is agreeable and any of his desired things also got materialised for some period, then again- "This has happened by my doing" -believing so he boasts (feels pride) in it. And if the rise of karmas agreeable to one's desire is not caused and the thing (work) does not get materialised as per his will, then he feels sorry and anxious. Thus through his own boastful and restless dispositions he again gets the fresh karmas accumulated; as a result of which he again gets (the asso­ciation of) body etc. and such a cyclic change continues inces­santly.

This Jiva has neither tried to understand the means of stop­ping/breaking this cyclic change nor adopted it anytime. He never had such a curiosity that I should know my true nature. If he comes to know himself (attains self realisation) then whatever form of karma- produced-role he may have to play, there will not




-arise I-ness-mine ness feeling in that (role). Whatsoever (bad) ex­ternal conditions may be there, it cannot make him feel misery. When he has to play the role, then of whomsoever role he may have to play, how does it matter? Then the role of beggars cannot make him unhappy and the role of an affluent person cannot cause boastfulness or ego in him. When he knows "himself (what he re­ally is) then there remains no I -ness feeling in the body etc. Being the fruit of karmas done in the past 'these are mere disguise' -such sort of feeling (belief) remains existing. Then there is neither hap­piness-unhappiness, nor attachment-aversion, nor is the bondage of fresh karmas. Whatever is the stock of old karmas, that will get disassociated after producing its effect (fruition) and then this soul will remain manifested exactly as its characteristics is-devoid of karmas, devoid of attachment-aversion. Therefore the means of becoming happy and getting rid of attachment-aversion is not to bring change in conditions (states of existence) but is to know the self(soul), because of which all sorts of conditions will appear to be the role of a drama.

As the modes (conditions) of Jiva (mundane being) so pro­duced by karmic-matter are compared with the different roles played in the drama, similarly in those (conditions) can also be compared with a dream. Thus, the karma-produced changing and perishable modes of a mundane being are meaningless and transi­tory just like a dream. So long some person continues seeing a dream, till then that dream appears to him as a real one, but when he wakes up then that dream remains only a dream devoid of any reality. Whatever conditions he underwent in dream state, those remain no more the cause of unhappiness-happiness. Similarly this Jiva is sleeping in his sentient-nature (is unaware of his conscious nature) and is awakening in the temporal acts (worldly affairs). If he could awaken in his conscious-nature then all acts of this world become meaningless like a dream. Therefore the means of keep­ing away the misery is not to undergo a pleasure some dream, but is to awaken from the dream.




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