God hood (omniscience) is our birth right
soul possesses the nucleus capacity of Godhood-
There are two types of substances in the world: "Chetan"
(sentient/living beings) and 'Achetan' (non-sentient/non-soul).
Sentient substances are those, which possess the power of knowing
and feeling or experiencing happiness-unhappiness. Contrary to
these are the non-sentient substances, which are devoid of the
power of knowing and feeling or experiencing, which cannot feel
pleasure or pain. Under the 'Chetan' -the sentient type of substances,
all souls and living beings (jivas) are covered; the rest of all
substances are included in the non-sentient 'Achetan' -substances.
All living beings (souls) are separate; every soul has its
independent existence. Their happiness-unhappiness, life, birth
death, experiences, feelings, pangs are separate from each
All living beings, even besides their being one from one
common category ('Chetan') point of view, are separate from
individual entity point of view. All flora and fauna varying
from plants, trees, ants, worms, insects, mosquitoes, bees,
flies, beasts, birds, tortoises, fishes to human beings, all the
living beings of sky, water and earth possess the power of
cognizance (sentiency). All these have the power of knowing.
Even the smallest microbe (bacteria, virus etc), which is
found everywhere, possesses the power of knowing.
All living beings, though belong to one sentient class from
genius point of view and are all-identical from the intrinsic
qualities point of view, yet the manifestation of that
sentient-power or of those qualities is not found alike and
equal in them; this is the only difference amongst them. The
manifestation of that power in human being is comparatively
more. Among the animals and birds it is lesser than human
beings; in ants and flies etc. still less; among
plants and trees further
lesser than flies, etc. and in microbes it is still less - so
less that they cannot feel in them that manifestation of
consciousness. Where as on one hand the manifestation of
soul's power gradually reducing can reach to this extremity of
reduction, on the other hand the same gradually increasing
in human state of existence, when it touches the uppermost
limit of evolution of humanity, attains the state of supreme
human being i.e. Godhood and thus it can reach the summit of
perfection. In this way every soul possesses the greatest
possibility of attaining Godhood and also the lowest
possibility of becoming almost an inanimate substances like
The progress of a living being (soul) towards the attainment of
Supreme State (Godhood} or the downfall towards the bacterial
state-both depends on its own effort making. It is totally at
its liberty to decide, choose, (proceed on) the path of
progress or of downfall. However, it is essential to know this
much that human state is that special
place from where this Jiva (soul) has the facility of
proceeding towards the journey of self-progress; though all
the rational five sensed beings can too start this journey.
Although, the right effort for the progress of the soul (self
realization) is possible from the rational five sensed state,
yet in all its states of existence this Jiva possesses the
nucleus capacity of attaining Godhood. Like the seed of Banyan
tree, the nucleus capacity of becoming God (Omniscient Supreme
being) is always present in this Jiva (soul) since eternity,
which he needs to evolve through his right efforts.
At present the Jiva is distressed /
Although there lies in each Jiva the highest possibility of attaining
Godhood, yet we find that at present, the Jiva is in distressed
state. Every living in the world wants to be happy and his
every effort is meant for attaining happiness only; but
because of being unaware / ignorant of the true nature of
happiness, his efforts are also not proper/true,
consequently he does not get anything except unhappiness and
'How the miseries of
‘ How the misery of this Jiva could come to an end?'-
this the science that has been invented is called religion
(Dharma). The Jiva is unhappy - this is an evidently
clear and proven thing. The experience of each of us makes us
feel that we are distressed / unhappy. "Why are we
distressed and what is the remedy to remove / get rid of that
misery" - this is what we have to think about.
For this it is essential to
understand as to what is unhappiness (misery) and the cause
of unhappiness and what is happiness (bliss) and the cause of
happiness. The cause of unhappiness is due to belief in
oneness feeling with body and fruits of one's Karma (actions).
And in consequence of it the unhappiness (misery) is nothing
but the evolution of attachment-aversion feeling in the
self-sentient nature devoid of body and the fruits of Karma's.
And in the consequence of it the happiness (bliss) is the
absence or non-evolution of attachment -aversion feeling i.e.;
passionless ness. So, we shall now discuss these things in
detail here under: -
of miseries: - Attachment and aversion
In every mundane being,
anger (krodha), conceit (mana), deceit (maya), greed (lobha)
or in other words attachment (raag), aversion (dwesha)
feelings are found. It is clearly observed that the person in
whom anger, conceit, deceit, greed are found are more vehement
(forceful); he/she himself/herself remains unhappy/ distressed
and is not liked by other people also. Even the son wants to
keep himself away from his angry (wrathful) father. The person
who has more vehement / forceful anger can commit even murder
of any other being. The person whose pride is more vehement
does not have any regard for others in comparison to himself.
When overpowered by deceit passion the son cheats even his own
parents. What sort of wrong conducts does a person not indulge
into under the excessive state of greed? From all this it
appears that whose anger, etc. passions or attachment-aversion
feelings are more (vehement / forceful) they are assuredly unhappy
(miserable). And in the presence of vehement passions, they
perform attachment-aversion or whatever acts, those all acts
are not only sinful but also troublesome to others. Moreover,
it is not
that only intensive attachment alone is distressing, but from
realistic standpoint the mild passion too is distressing; but
in comparison to intense passions/attachment these
(mild-passions/attachment) are said to be happiness instead
to happiness: Absence of attachment-aversion
whose attachment -aversion/passions are somewhat lessened or
mitigated, we call him a good person; he does not indulge in
evil acts and proves to be a useful/helpmate/supporter to
other people and never an obstructer. If in some person these
passions/attachment-aversion are lessened furthermore, then
people call him a respectable gentleman. Such a person acts
judiciously, i.e.; he is honest in his conduct, speaks
truth, protects, helps, serves other fellow beings and remains
serene / calm in thoughts~ his life is full of (virtuous)
fragrance. And the person in whom attachment/aversion/passions
are found even more lessened he is called a 'Sadhu' (a true
saint). Merely by adopting outward posture (guise) of a monk
one does not become monk;' the outward posture (guise) is an
outward state. His soul attains monk-hood when the major
portions of attachment-aversion are finished internally. What
to say about the so evolved tranquility (peace) of the soul!
His life becomes like that of a flower, which is not only full
of fragrance in itself but fills others too with fragrance.
And the soul in which the attachment-aversion is totally
finished, vanished forever, his serenity; his bliss crossing
all limits becomes limitless, endless and infinite. Such a
soul attains its natural completeness and becomes the Supreme
attachment-aversion completely is not an impossible thing;
because when these attachment-aversion are found more
(vehement) in some Jivas, less in some Jivas, further lesser in
some Jivas, then it is quite likely that these
(attachment-aversion) may not be present at all in some Jivas.
In other words, when these can reduce from much to less, from
less to lesser, then their extremely lesser state or even
their total absence can also be
of attachment-aversion and suffering (unhappiness). Those
who have too much of attachment-aversion are always
sorrowful in themselves; even besides having all external
things agreeable/ favorable, they are assuredly extremely
unhappy/sorrowful. The external agreeable favorable
conditions are found in abundance with celestial beings (Devas),
kings, emperors and 'chakravarty' (king of kings) but even
they do not possess the spiritual happiness.
The cause of bodily comforts and agreeable
conditions is the due to rise of one's virtuous (good)
Karmas, whereas the cause of inner happiness (spiritual
bliss) is due to the absence of attachment-aversion.
Therefore they, whose attachment-aversion goes on vanishing,
feel happy even without having agreeable external
conditions. A true monk feels extremely happy even without
having any external thing with him. Why? Because in him
the attachment-aversion feelings are much reduced and its
place is taken by truth, forbearance, modesty, simplicity,
self-contentment, celibacy, etc. and other natural
qualities. Consequently the monk remains happy even without
having external agreeable conditions. This concludes that
Jiva is unhappy and distressed because of his own
attachment-aversion feelings and not due to outward
conditions. For attaining happiness we've made several
efforts continuously till date in order to get external
agreeable conditions and for obtaining those agreeable
conditions we also made efforts for acquiring auspicious
Karma's, but never made efforts for renouncing and
destroying attachment-aversion. Hence due to rise of virtuous
Karmas we sometimes got the external agreeable conditions
also, yet we could not become happy because we never knew
its means or remedy; and then the question of making right
effort could not arise. Had we known the right means and had
made efforts accordingly - had we made vigorous effort for
finishing the attachment-aversion - then to whatever extent
we might have succeeded in finishing them, to that extent
this soul or our souls would have attained happiness.
From this deliberation it is concluded that
attachment-aversion only is unhappiness and misery. Their
only is happiness and bliss; and their total absence
(annihilation) is extreme happiness (beatitude). Or in other
words this can be equated as under:
being (soul) - attachment-aversion = Supreme Soul
being (soul) –indulgence in sensory objects (passion)
being (soul) - indulgence in
=Supreme Soul (God)
Dharma (Religion). Adharma (Non Religion).
the means of annihilation (complete destruction) of
attachment-aversion is the religious-path. The extent to
which attachment-aversion are vanished, to that much extent
is the religious purity evolved in a soul. And only the
total annihilation of the same is the completeness of
religion or attainment of perfect religion. Evolution of
attachment-aversion is non-religion (impurity) and it is
of two kinds: one is vice (demerit) and the other is Virtue
(merit). Aversion of all kinds whether it is feeble or
intense is inauspicious (vice) from all angles. The vehement
state of attachment is vice (pap) and feeble state is
virtue (punya). In other words, whatever action is performed
with the intention of attachment-aversion is a vicious act
because of the presence of intense attachment-aversion.
Whereas, any act or done with the intention of mitigating
(vanishing) the attachment-aversion is a virtuous act
because of the presence of feeble degree of attachment.
acts/deeds are done or performed in the vehement state of
attachment-aversion, all those are vicious (demeritorious)
only; e.g. indulging in violence, lie, theft, adultery,
excessive attachment in the objects of senses, injustice,
eating the non-eatables, etc. And whatever acts/deeds are
done or performed in the feeble state of
attachment-aversion, all those are virtuous (meritorious),
e.g. observing non-violence, speaking truth, non-stealing,
celibacy, non attachment in sensory objects, justful acts
etc. Since these are of auspicious nature, so these become
of auspicious bondage. And no indulgence (of any kind) is
found in the absence of attachment-aversion, hence there being
absence of both (vicious or virtuous) types of acts; the soul
remains passionless (devoid of attachment-aversion feelings)
Attaining passionless ness
(stoicism) is profit, dwelling in auspicious
thoughts/dispositions is less-loss, and dwelling in inauspicious
dispositions is more loss. Our effort should be to obtain
profit; if profit could not be attained then for escaping from
(the state of) great loss it is necessary to remain in the state
of less loss.
definitions of religion.
the focal point is one:
There are four
basic definitions of 'Dharma' (religion)-
(1) Oneness of true-belief (insight), knowledge and conduct is
nature of substance is religion. Here the context is of soul
substance, hence the nature of (self) soul is religion.
forbearance, etc. Ten innate (natural) characteristics are
(4) Non-violence is the Supreme religion.
Attachment-aversion is the impurity of the soul, knowing,
that impurity as one's own malady (blemish) and achieving its
annihilation is true-believe (insight or Samyak Darshan). The
means of annihilating that impurity is to know and realize one's
own sentient-nature devoid of attachment-aversion; this is right
knowledge (i.e. Samyak Jnan). And steadiness in one's own
is right conduct (i.e. Samyak Charitra). The extent to which one
remains stable (steady) in one's own conscious nature, to that
extent his/her attachment-aversion are annihilated and to that
ex- tent is evolved the religion (Dharma) or purity. On getting
perfectly stable (in self soul) all sorts of
attachment-aversion are annihilated, this is the
completeness/perfection of right conduct, it is the
completeness/perfection of religion (Dharma) or purity. This
(the state of purity) itself is the passionless ness and this
itself is the nature of soul also.
anger-passion is forbearance, absence of pride- passion is
modesty, absence of deceit-passion is straight forwardness and
absence of greed passion is purification (contentment), etc.
Thus, through the ten characteristics of religion also the absence
(annihilation) of passions or attachment-aversion is described.
The evolution or presence of attachment-aversion leading to the
destruction (foulness) of the nature of the soul is injury (Hinsa);
because the attachment-aversion feelings are the destroyer (observer)
of the passionless nature of the soul. In the absence of those
attachment-aversion, the nature of the soul is not destroyed.
So, it is non-injury (Ahinsa). Killing of Jiva is merely an
outward injury, which takes place due to the presence of
attachment-aversion passion existing in the inner feelings. In
the state of intense attachment-aversion the conduct i.e. the
proclivity of Jiva found is of the form of effortlessness,
carelessness and negligence. As a result of that negligent
conduct, externally any Jiva (living being) may die or may not
die, (but) wherever one's conduct is of negligent form, the
injury (Hinsa) is invariably caused. The real disease is
attachment-aversion; the outward action is its result (outcome)
only. By curing the disease, its counter-effect (outward
negligent conduct) ends automatically. Therefore the ultimate
conclusion is, that presence or evolution of attachment-aversion
only is injury, and the absence of attachment-aversion is
non-injury, and this is religion.
root cause of evolution of attachment-aversion-feelings:
the body to be the self (soul)”
Here, naturally a question may arise as to what is the root cause
of evolution of attachment-aversion feelings? Why are those
produced? On deep thinking, we find that the substratum (root
cause) of evolution of attachment-aversion is the Jiva's misbelieve
from time immemorial that "I am body." This Jiva
(embodied mundane being), even though being in itself conscious
(sentient) by nature and a self-knower too, not identifying
oneself as to be a sentient being, knows the self-soul as to be
the body. He views
oneness in the body and the self; and due to this, the
feeling of one-ness is developed in all the things concerned
with the body. He feels attachment in the things non-agreeable
to it. Besides the feelings of one-ness in the body, whatever
virtuous and vicious form of impure dispositions (foul thoughts)
is evolved, he develops the feeling of one-ness in them also.
By viewing (believing) the body and the things related with
the body as one's own, a feeling of pride/ego about all these
things is developed in him. When ego is hurt, anger-passion
arises. For fostering the egotism he tries to hoard the
"other non-self objects, material things and living beings,
which gives rise to the greed passion in him. And on not.
getting the agreeable conditions fulfilled, he indulges in
deceitful activities. In this way the basic cause of indulgence
in passions or attachment-aversion feelings is due to believing
the body as one's own and to believe mine-ness in the
(associated) conditions caused by the rise of Karmas. On pondering
over further, it is concluded that- "since he looks upon
the auspicious-inauspicious dispositions, i.e.
attachment-aversion feelings as one's own (of the self-form),
so he treats them to be as his nature itself; therefore he
cannot even think about the annihilation of those (impure)
In this way we find that the root or the basis of the tree
of attachment-aversion feelings is the (false) belief of this
Jiva that "I am body" and this tree is being fostered
(watered) by this (wrong) understanding that attachment-aversion
feelings are my nature. These false convictions (beliefs) of
oneness with body and attachment-aversion can be removed only
when this Jiva identifies himself and understands \that I am
not body and also that the auspicious-inauspicious
dispositions or attachment-aversion feelings are not my nature.
Distinct from all these one should feel that I am the owner
(possessor) of knowledge; I am one alone sentient-entity,
root cause of happiness (spiritual bliss): Realising oneself in
experience our self to be the body, all sort of restlessness
surround us; many types of thoughts (notions) arise in our mind.
This fact is well experienced by all of us because since
eternity we have been seeing (believing) ourselves to be the
body only. Contrary to this, when we experience ourselves as
self sentient souls then no restlessness is evolved because
the sentient soul which possesses knowledge as its intrinsic
nature, neither takes birth nor it dies, none of its infinitive
qualities is going to get reduced nor anything is going to be
added into it from outside. Hence there cannot be any fear of
its getting spoiled or lost nor any greed of something coming in
or mixing in it. Since all souls are alike by knowing nature
(being embodiment of knowledge), hence neither the question of
mutual comparison in them can arise, nor the situation of any
form of envy or pride (among them) can arise. In this way of
realizing the self as one sentient form only, there remains no
cause for germination of any passion or attachment aversion
disposition (the basic cause of miseries), which are produced
due to believing one-ness in the body and in non-self objects.
On experiencing the self -soul as to be the self, these get
mitigated. This principle is so clear like that of the
arithmetic rule that two plus two are equal to four. There is no
room for any doubt or mystery about this.
conclusion of above discussion is that it is essential to know
Misery is caused due to attachment aversion feelings and not due
to other substances.
Without identifying the self-sentient soul's one-ness feeling
in the body, the attachment aversion cannot be ended, and
without the end of attachment-aversion this Jiva (mundane being)
can never ever become happy.
Jiva has only one disease i.e. attachment and aversion.
Jiva has only one.
Also, the medicine for a]] living beings, of whatever faith
they may be belonging to, is only one. To experience the
self-soul as sentient form alone and quite distinct from the
body, and the fruition of karmas, is the only remedy to end
the attachment aversion. Also it is seen in this world at large
that we do not feel happy unhappy from knowing the profit or
loss, survival or death of those persons or things whom we do
not know identify and see as to be our own. Here, because we
have identified our things (to be our own), so those things
appear to be other (non-self) things and not to be as our own.
Similarly, if on the same pattern we could have attained the
knowledge of self soul being quite distinct from the body, etc.
then the body, etc. also would have appeared to be (non-self)
thing and then the feelings of happiness unhappiness, attachment
aversion in them too would have not arisen. When the body, etc.
itself would have appeared as other non-self things then all the
other objects related to this body i.e. wife, son, etc. or
wealth-property etc. would have automatically been perceived
(known) as another (non-self) things. Therefore in their association-disassociation,
the question of becoming happy-unhappy would not at all arise.
The end of attachment aversion alone is the real happiness.
How to bring the end of attachment aversion feeling? For
finishing them, how to identity the self-sentient soul? We
will discuss in detail on this issue.
root cause of mundane existence
deZd`rS HkhoSjlekfgrksvfi ;qFr boa A
ckfy’kkuka] izfrHkkl% l [kyq Hkochte~ AA
Thus, this soul, even if it
is not being attached (mixed) with attachment, etc., Karmic
product and body, etc. appears to be (mixed) with them to
ignorant selves. Such (false) appearance alone is, in fact, the
seed of mundane existence.
By annihilating the
perverse belief (mithyatva)
(identifying) the self
soul correctly and remaining (engrossed) in it
and not moving/diverting
its attention is the only means of
realization (spiritual effort).
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